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Original Copy of The Barotseland Agreement 1964


National Chairman, Cheke Cha Mbunda and Chairman, Cultural Sub Committee earlier in the morning entered the Mongu Riots Commission venue with a display of Bows and Arrows to showcase the Mbunda War Machinery which was used to fight wars alongside the Aluyi in the 17 and 18th Centuries, but this was seen as a security risk and ordered to take them out. They are seen taking their weapons outside the hall before rejoining the audience to wait for their submission time.  Picture courtesy of The Post Newspaper 23rd November, 2011.


National Chairman, Cheke            National Chairman, Cheke Cha Mbunda on the right

Cha Mbunda sharing a light          with Lee Habasonda of SACCORD second from left

moment with the Chairman of       at the Mongu Riots Commission and the Chairman of the Mongu Riots Commission        the Commission Dr, Rodger Chongwe in the middle at Dr, Rodger Chongwe at  lunch      lunch break before the Cheke Cha Mbunda     

break before the Cheke Cha         submission.

Mbunda submission.





Mr. Chairman Sir,


We are from Cheke Cha Mbunda Cultural and Writers Association. It is an honor to be accorded this rear privilege to make these submissions from the Mbundas and their Chiefs in Zambia. 


Cheke Cha Mbunda Cultural and Writers Association is a representative organ of the Mbundas in Zambia, Angola, Congo and Namibia. It was formed in 1956 and registered in the Laws of The Republic of Zambia by the Registrar of Societies in 1982 as Cheke Cultural Writers Association and later renamed to what it is now and re-registered for change of name in 2008.


This change was necessitated by shift in the Association’s vision from just writing about the history to also revive, preserve, promote and protect the Culture and affairs of the Mbundas, their Monarch and Chiefs.  This entails organizing and holding cultural gatherings, and to this end executing programmes relating to “Official Representation and Custodian of traditional music, makithi (known as makishi in other languages), oracles, myths, oral and written records of the Mbundas.


Cheke Cha Mbunda Cultural and Writers Association is non political and non partisan, but support the Government of the day. In other words Government will be supported by the legitimacy of the ballot.  These are historians who wrote ‘The History and Cultural Life of the Mbunda Speaking People’ book in English in1994 and translated it in Mbunda language in 1998.


Brief History of  The Mbunda Speaking People   


Mbundas are a distinct group comprising of seven dialects, and these are Mbunda Manthzi, Mbunda Shamuka, Mbunda Yauma, Mbunda Ndundu, Mbunda Nkangala, Mbunda Mbalango and Mbunda Sango. 


These are under the leadership of nine chiefs in Zambia, namely Senior Chief (Mwene) Sikufele, Manyinga – Kabompo; Chief (Mwene) Chiyengele Josia Nyumbu, Nang’oko – Mongu; Chief (Mwene) Kandala, Mabumbu – Mongu; Chief (Mwene) Chiyengele Chingumbe, Kayombo – Kabompo; Chief (Mwene) Mundu, Liumba –Kalabo; Chief (Mwene) Kandombwe – Luvuji, Lukulu; Chief (Mwene) Kasabi, Lukute – Kaoma; Chief (Mwene) Kasimba, Kalumwange – Kaoma; Chief (Mwene) Lindeho, Chamemba –Kalabo.


In Namibia the Mbundas are found in Rundi District under the leadership of Chief (Mwene) Kanyanga.


In Congo (DRC) Mbundas are found in the confluence of Kwilu and Kasai Rivers.


In Angola, Mbundas are found in Moxico and Kuando Kuvango Provinces under the leadership of 55 Chiefs.


All the Mbunda Speaking People and their Chiefs in these four Countries ascribe to the leadership of the Mbunda Monarch in Angola under King Mbandu III, the twenty second (22nd) Monarch on the throne today.


This is a more or less similar situation where the Chewa People of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia have Paramount Chief Gawa Undi in Zambia. It only goes to show that the Mbunda Speaking People are a big tribe that cannot be subjugated by another tribe, and one of the 73 ethnic groups in Zambia.


The Mbundas came into Barotseland from Mbundaland in 1795, almost a Century before the white man divided and shared Africa into political boundaries in the year 1885   The first Mbunda Chief to enter Barotseland was Chief (Mwene) Mundu, followed by Chief (Mwene) Kandala and finally Chief (Mwene) Chiyengele,  The three Chiefs came to Barotseland not because they ran away from any war, but due to the warm friendship they enjoyed with the Litunga of Barotseland then, Mulambwa Santulu,  


The coming of Chief (Mwene) Chiyengele in Barotseland brought about great changes in the lives of the Aluyi and Mbundas in Barotseland.  First, the Mbundas fought the Luvales who troubled the Aluyi by always getting their cattle and halted the Luvale incursions in Barotseland. This resulted in a strengthened friendship between Aluyi and Mbundas, causing Mulambwa to declare Chief Chiyengele as the Senior Chief of the Mbundas in Barotseland and decreed a ten point Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty with the Mbundas as given below:


1)        We give you this sharp-pointed pole to replace those poles with rounded tops for your royal palace. It is only your palace which will be built with sharp poles called milombwe.


2)        Your royal drum (Kenda na Vafwa) and royal xylophone (Kamuyongole) should be played in your palace, when you visit others and whenever you come to this capital.


3)        It is only you who will use a royal fly whisk of the eland.


4)        You are free to continue to teach your people your language and culture; you will not be forced to take our language and culture.


5)        There shall never be a Lozi person who enslaves a Mbunda and no Mbunda shall enslave a Lozi


6)        You are not forced to live on the Barotse plain but free to live in the forests.


7)        You are free to cultivate cassava, yams and millet in the multitude that you wish.


8)        In military and political matters you should be allied with the Aluyi


9)        Never fight among one another, but love one another.


10)      Finally, respect chieftainship and the elders.


This and other factors earned Mbundas to be represented on the Barotse National Council.


Secondly, the Mbundas fought alongside Aluyi in the Aluyi/Makololo war in 1830, which ousted the Makololo rule on the Aluyi. This led to the establishment of the Mbunda Chieftainship at Lukwakwa under Senior Chief Sikufele now in Kabompo District, being a descendant of Mulambwa and a Mbunda wife. As you might know Mr. Chairman, the Makololo from the south introduced the Lozi language spoken not only in Western Province today but also Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Caprivi Strip .


Thirdly, the Mbunda war machinery of Bows and Arrows, fought alongside the Aluyi to conquer the Tongas, Ilas, and the whole Bantu Botatwe group, which resulted in the Aluyi/Mbunda cousinship with Tongas.


Later the Kaonde/Aluyi war which Aluyi lost in the first battle, but warn with the help of the Mbunda war machinery, where Mbunda Chief Kasimba of Kalumwange played a major role resulting in the Mbunda Chieftainship having firmly been established there at the confluence of the Lalafuta and Kyamenge in 1893, opposite Chief Mushima Njivumina of the Kaonde.


All this proved the fighting supremacy of the Mbundas in fighting alongside the Aluyi and in honoring the Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty, Mbundas remained the true allies of the Aluyi both in military and political matters.


The Relevance of The Mbundas To The Barotseland Agreement 1964  


Mr. Chairman in reference to the summarized Mbunda history referred to earlier, it is without doubt that the Mbundas in Zambia are part of the ‘Barotseland Agreement 1964’


1)    Barotseland Agreement 1964 is real and valid and above all still a legal document, and was signed by affirmation of the Holy Bible before the Holy God in the British Parliament.


2)    The Barotseland Agreement 1964 states clearly of the one part namely that ‘Sir Mwanawina Lewanika the third, K.B.E, Litunga of Barotseland, acting on behalf of himself, his heirs and successors, his Council, and the chiefs and people of Barotseland.’


It should be noted with reference to the Mbunda history in Barotseland that, ‘the chiefs and people of Barotseland’ given in the preamble of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 include the Mbunda, and others tribes in Barotseland such as Nkoyas, Totelas, Lenjes, Lambas, Ilas, Tongas, just to mention a few, the archives are there to prove.


3)    One of the provisions on Item 2 entitled The Constitution of Zambia in the Barotseland Agreement 1964 state that ‘The Constitution of the Republic of Zambia shall include the provisions agreed upon for inclusion therein at the Constitutional Conference held in London in May, 1964 relating to (a) the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual, and those provisions shall have full force and effect in Barotseland’.


It is without doubt Mbundas are one of the individuals that should enjoy this ‘human rights and fundamental freedoms’ as enshrined in the Barotseland Agreement 1964 of Barotseland. It is clear that the Mbunda/Aluyi relationship is so interwoven that in certain cases it is not possible to distinguish a Mbunda from Aluyi.  The Nalikwanda used in the famous Kuomboka Ceremony was made initially by Mbunda Speaking People. Most of the songs and utilities used in Kuomboka are for Mbundas and other tribes in Barotseland such the Nkoyas, Mbukushu, etc.  The Nkoya rethym is majestic and befitting royalty. In short the Mbundas of Zambia are qualified to speak on the Barotseland Agreement 1964.




Mr. Chairman, we realize there are terms of reference to this Commission and it will not be professional for us to submit to every term of reference, for obvious reasons that we do not want to speculate. However, we will submit on the terms of reference where we are competent as follows:




Mr. Chairman, it is without doubt that the riots that took place in Mongu in Western Province were caused by the inability or willingness of the three successive Governments to respond to numerous presentations of the people from Western Province to have the Barotseland Agreement 1964 which was abrogated in 1969, restored. Here are the facts which you know very well Mr. Chairman:


Barotseland Agreement 1964


The Barotseland Agreement 1964 is an agreement that ushered in Zambia on 24th October 1964.  Therefore Barotseland Agreement 1964 is a ‘Parent Legal Document’ to the Republic of Zambia.  This agreement cannot therefore be annulled by an Act of Parliament because, item 8 under Implementation says ‘The Government of the Republic of Zambia shall take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the laws for the time being in force in the Republic are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement’, meaning that the Government of Zambia shall not make any laws inconsistent with this Agreement.  Any attempts to do so it is inconsistent with the Agreement and may only be done out of malice, ill intent and sheer prejudice.


1)   “Exhibit 1” The Opening Speech of H.H. The Litunga Mwanawina III To A Barotse Conference Held at Government House, Lusaka  In April, 1964.


Paraphrasing this speech Mr. Chairman, in paragraph 4 – 7 the Litunga said:


4.  “When in 1889 my father, King Lewanika, sought the protection of Queen Victoria, that protection was granted on understanding that the Barotse Government would continue to govern the people of Barotseland in accordance with the agreements made”.


5.  “When in 1911 King Lewanika agreed that his country should be administered as part of the new Northern Rhodesia he agreed on the understanding that this arrangement would not affect the powers of the Barotse Government”.


6. “Since the times have changed, the administration of Barotseland has been modernized and my Government have recently agreed under the provision of the reforms to appoint a provisional Cabinet comprising 5 elected Departmental Heads under the chairmanship of my Acting Ngambela to form a Barotse Cabinet. These reforms will be carried out with the help of my new Cabinet at the earliest possible time in accordance with the wishes of my people, who now desire to go forward in unity with the rest of Northern Rhodesia on the basis set out in my Government’s memorandum”.


7. ”It is in the belief that agreement can be reached on this basis that we have presented this memorandum which we have agreed among ourselves; and I have readily accepted your invitation, Mr. Prime Minister, to discuss it with your Government as between friends and in the earnest desire to reach agreement and to go forward into the future together.”


 2)        “Exhibit 2”  Speech By The Prime Minister Kenneth Kaunda At A Meeting Held At The Headquarters Of The Barotse Government At Lealui On Thursday, 6th August, 1964


Paraphrasing this speech Mr. Chairman, in paragraph 4 and 11-12 the Prime Minister Kenneth Kaunda said:


4. An Under Minister will be appointed to each Province as the personal representative of the Prime Minister - and after Independence of the President. In Barotseland the Under Minister will be a direct link between the Litunga and the Central Government, and he will be particularly responsible to the Prime Minister - and later the President – to ensure that the Barotseland Agreement, which was made in London immediately after the Independence Conference in May, is being honoured. It will be no part of the functions of the Under Minister to interfere in the running of the Barotse Government…..


11.  I should now like to turn to the Barotseland Agreement which was reached in London in May, and I wish to give an assurance that it is the Government’s full intention that the Barotse Agreement will be honoured fully after Independence. I believe that the Agreement reached in London was an honourable Agreement from the point of view of both the Central Government and the Barotseland Government, and I believe that the way to ensure that it is implemented to the advantage of us all is by loans of a close personal relationship between the Litunga and the Prime Minister – and later the President – through the Under Minister. I am very glad that the basis of the Agreement is


12.  that Barotseland is an integral part of Zambia, and I can assure you, Sir Mwanawina, and all Members of the Barotse Royal Family and of the Barotse Government, that the Government has no wish to interfere with the day-to-day running of the internal affairs of Barotseland. This is the responsibility of the Barotse Government and the intention of the Central Government will be no more than to give to the Barotse Government its maximum assistance and co-operation.


However, Mr. Chairman, four years after Independence and Barotseland Agreement 1964 being in force serious violations were noticed;


3)    “Exhibit 3” Letter to His Excellency the President of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, Lusaka From the Barotse Royal Establishment dated 13th September, 69


Paraphrasing this speech Mr. Chairman, in the introduction they wrote:


“We have noticed from Government Gazette No. 513 of Friday 29th August, 1969 that through constitution (Amendment) No. 5 Act, 1969 that the Attorney General intends to ask Parliament to terminate the Barotseland Agreement, 1964 so that all the rights, liabilities and obligations there under should lapse. We have the honour, therefore, to request Your Excellency as a Christian National Leader and one of the three principal signatories to that agreement, to advise the Attorney General to withdraw that Bill. We make this humble request for the following reasons:-


6.  Should the Barotseland Agreement, 1964 be terminated, the suspicions of those who thought that the last referendum was intended to terminate the agreement and to abolish our Status and way of life, not the European Farms, would be confirmed.


15.  In conclusion we would like to assure Your Excellency of the loyalty of the Malozi including the Litunga and Chiefs to you and we would like to put it in writing that we have no intention or plans to secede from Zambia, but our only plea is for the validity of the Barotseland Agreement, 1964 to continue in fulfillment of the sincere assurances which we were given before and after independence.


4)        “Exhibit 4” Memorandum of the people of the Western Province of Zambia to His Excellency the President Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda, President of the Republic of Zambia, Following His Excellency’s Address in the Western Province on Saturday, 16th March 1991.


Paraphrased Mr. Chairman, the memorandum’s paragraphs 1 and 3 read:


1. Your Excellency, we the people of the Western Province – The Barotse

people otherwise known as the Malozi humbly request your Excellency’s

conscientious consideration of the review of the provisions of the Barotseland

Agreement of the 18th May, 1964…….


3. The Barotse people hope that this Memorandum shall be received and be attended to in the same spirit of honesty and candidness as the Agreement that was entered into and which has been referred to in this Memorandum. In the absence of anything also to the contrary the Barotse people seek restoration of the provisions of the Barotseland Agreement of the 18th May 1964 and therefore seek from the Government of the Republic of Zambia strict compliance with the provisions of the agreement and with the Barotse authority ordinance of 1936.


5)        “Exhibit 5” State House, Lusaka, Republic of Zambia Letter to Hon. G. Mukande, The Ngambela, Barotse Royal Establishment, dated 1st August 1991.


Paraphrased Mr. Chairman, the memorandum’s paragraphs 1, 6, 7, and 11 – 12 read:


1. “I wish to thank you most sincerely for the memorandum you forwarded to

me and for the very fruitful discussion we had with your delegation here at

State House on the 26th June, 1991.”


6. “The second issue relates to the Barotseland Agreement. I was pleased that during our discussions you confirmed your understanding of the role of that agreement in the new Zambia. There is need for us to study this in detail soon after the elections and together work out and enhance channels of communication and consultations in the implementation of the issues which were raised in our discussions. Here I am thinking specifically of the way in which Party officials in the area can have their responsibilities clearly demarcated with those of the Indunas so that there is no conflict in how we serve our people”.  


7. “On the question of Silalo Indunas referred to as ‘Chiefs’ on National Registration Cards in their local areas of responsibility, all that needs to be done is for me to receive their names, as indicated in my earlier communication to you and their areas and then work out how these relate to the Barotse Royal Establishment on matters relating to administration and the judiciary in particular”,


11. "Obviously there is a lot of work to be done by both the Government on one hand and also the Barotse Royal Establishment on the other, working hand in hand to serve the interests of the people of the Western Province in particular and Zambia in general. We have to start afresh and in the Third Republic, after elections, I can assure you, the Party, when it is returned to power, will pay particular attention to all the matters which you raised and have now reached me directly. I must admit at times due to a breakdown in communication there seemed to be problems when in fact there was not. What we all need to do now is to gear ourselves for more work in the new Republic. On my part, I promised to do my best to achieve the objectives which together we should set up for the benefit of the people”.


12. “To succeed we need the commitment of everybody. If there were any mistakes we should frankly state these and work hard to correct them. Our objectives are the same – which is to bring development to the Province and improve the standard of living of all our people in peace and security. In all this we will rely completely on the guidance of the Litunga, all the Chiefs in the Province who are his children, his Council and the entire Barotse Royal Establishment.”


6)        “Exhibit 6” State House, Lusaka, Republic of Zambia Letter to Litunga Ilute, dated 22nd October 1991.


Paraphrased Mr. Chairman, the citing the whole letter, he wrote:


“I had a very useful meeting indeed with your Ngambela and his delegation. The Ngambela and his distinguished colleagues were most able in explaining to me the anxieties in Western Province in regard to some aspects of the Barotse Agreement as experienced over the period of the First and Second Republic of our young nation.


For my part, I see the need to look at these anxieties as we enter the Third Republic. I appreciate greatly too the most important point stressed to me by the Ngambela and the members of his delegation that the anxieties over the Barotse Agreement are indeed and truly anxieties within our own one and same family as a Zambian nation and that all that which has to be said and done in this regard has to be accepted and understood in this important way by all of us. This great spirit expressed by the Ngambela and his delegation is the strength, indeed the foundation of all that which we must do together in order to iron out any and all anxieties wherever these may exist on either side of the matter so as to create the complete harmony which is so essential in the development effort of the people and for the most beneficial utilization of resources in their own particular areas for their own immediate good and for the greater strength of our nation as a whole.


It is my desire and decision that we look together at any and all the anxieties over the Barotse Agreement in detail, piece by piece and step by step until we shall have covered the whole area to the complete satisfaction of all sides. We shall do this as a family. Indeed, we must do this as a happy family which is committed to the great welfare and well-being of all its members.


Since we must deal with a concrete situation and must look at concrete arrangements to correct specific anxieties in a concrete and workable manner, I believe it is right and proper that we are led into our effort by some assistance which is professionally knowledgeable and competent in this area. It is my belief that if we proceed steadily in this way, we should be able to deal with each and every anxiety in a most practical and workable way for ourselves.


In this regard, I proposed to the Ngambela and his delegation for your consideration that you appoint a lawyer of your own choice within Zambia who will work with the Attorney General and Solicitor-General over these anxieties in the Barotse Agreement with the view to having them all ironed out.


You will, indeed, be free to instruct your chosen lawyer to cover the areas of anxiety as you see them. He will report progress to you just as the Government legal officers through the Attorney General will report progress to me. Where the two legal sides feel there should be a meeting between you or the Ngambela and myself, I will be available. I want very much to see these anxieties completely ironed out and as quickly as possible as we go into the Third Republic.


I explained to the Ngambela that the State will meet the cost of the lawyer whom you will engage on this exercise. It is only essential that he must be a Zambian lawyer working in Zambia as it will not be possible for the State to make any payments in foreign exchange for this work which will take place within our own family.


If my proposal is acceptable to you, the work to iron out in this way any anxieties in Barotse Agreement can start straightaway. I explained all this in full to the Ngambela and his distinguished colleagues whom I trust will amplify my present message to you.


In conclusion, I want to assure you as I have always done that I see no insurmountable obstacles at all in dealing with and resolving any and all anxieties over any aspect of the Barotse Agreement within our one family of the Zambia to which we are all an integral part. I know fully well what it is that we are talking about: I understand it and appreciate the situation perfectly. Our free nation has to continue to move together as one family of many united viable houses.


7)        “Exhibit 7” R. M. A. Chongwe & Company Advocates and Commissioners of Oaths And Consul of The Barotse Traditional Authoritiee, letter To The President of the Republic of Zambia, dated 21st April 1992.


Paraphrased Mr. Chairman, as you are aware the letter’s paragraphs 1, 5 - 8 read:


1.  "We represent the Barotse Traditional Authories in this matter who now

have instructed us to contact you on the same”.


5.  “Mr. President Sir, the members of the Barotseland Royal Establishment had constantly reminded the UNIP government about the breach but due to the perpetual State of Emergency that existed at the time coupled with UNIP’s dictatorial tendencies, it was feared and indeed reasonably so, that any pressure exerted on the UNIP government would have serious repercussions on the members of the Barotse Royal Establishment and therefore the grievances could not be publicly voiced out”.


6.  “Sir, the Barotse people are now desirous to have your comments on this matter as they feel betrayed by their own government in whom they had entrusted their rights and believed were entering into this Agreement in good faith”.


7.   “Sir, the former President Kenneth D. Kaunda did at least concede to dialogue with the Barotse people and its our client’s wish that you personally meet them to discuss this long standing matter which has caused a lot of anxieties among the Barotse people whom we understand Sir, tirelessly campaigned for your government’s victory in the last elections and have vowed to continue to support your government with blind loyalty”.


8.   “It is our considered opinion Mr. President Sir, that this is not the kind of matter that we should merely leave to the courts to decide because of it’s sensitive nature and the need for continued peace, unity and stability in our nation of Zambia. We therefore, as a result have halted the court proceedings which were commenced in the Second Republic to allow you, Mr. President Sir, to discuss this matter with the Barotse people through their Royal Establishment.


8)        “Exhibit 8” Minister of Legal Affairs, R.M.A. Chongwe, SC, MP, letter To The Hon. Mr. Ilute Yeta, The Litunga of the Western Province, dated 2nd October 1992.


Paraphrased Mr. Chairman, as you are aware the letter’s paragraphs 1, 2, 7 - 9 read:


1.     “On Wednesday the 21st Day of October, 1992 a delegation led by the

Ngambela and comprising of members of the Royal Establishment and the

Council met the Hon. Ministers of Defense, Finance, Home Affairs, Local

Government and Housing, Lands, Commerce Trade and Industry, Tourism and

Legal Affairs. The meeting was chaired by the Minister of Legal Affairs.


2.    “The Ngambela of the Western Province representing the Barotse Royal

 Establishment said that he had been instructed by the Litunga and the people of Western Province to negotiate with the Government for the restoration of the Barotse Agreement which was signed on the 18th Day of May, 1964 between the Government of the Northern Rhodesia, the Litunga of Barotse Land and the British Government who were the Colonial authority in the then Northern Rhodesia before the 24th October, 1964 when the country achieved independent nationhood.


7.  “The Government was of the view that dialogue between the Government and the Litunga and the Royal Establihment of the Western Province was essential particularly when questions relating to the Barotse Agreement of 1964 arose. The Government observed however that it had been in power for barely 12 months and the Agreement referred to was signed in 1964 and the abrogation of the Agreement took place almost 22 years ago through a constitutional amendment and that since 1964 a lot of events have taken place in Zambia.


8.  “The referendum of 1969 which took away people’s property rights and which was fully supported by all the Zambians including the people from the Western Province was an event in point which gave authority to the then Government to abrogate the Agreement of 1964.  The enactment of the One Party State constitution to replace the 1964 constitution and the subsequent appointment to the Central Committee of the Litunga of the Western Province are events which would tend to affect the status of the Barotse Land Agreement of 1964. The Ngambela and his delegation had produced certain letters written by the former President to the Litunga and dated the 22nd October, 1991 and another dated 21st April, 1992 from the lawyers of the Royal Establishment to the President of the Republic of Zambia. These documents the members of the Government delegation were seeing for the first time and it was felt in the event that as the Government knew very little about the Barotse Agreement as such, it was only fair that the Government should be given a little more time to study the matter and communicate with the Ngambela at a later stage to continue the discussion”.


9.  “It was therefore agreed between the Parties that the discussions hould be adjourned to allow Government to study the whole issues raised by the Ngambela and his delegation and at an appropriate time a further meeting will be held to discuss the Barotse Land Agreement of 1964.


10. “It was also noted that the proceedings that had been instituted by the Royal Establishment against the Government in October, 1991 were still live and that the matter was therefore subjudice.


9)        “Exhibit 9” Minister Without Portfolio, Brigadier General Godfrey Miyanda, MP, Letter To The Ngambela, Royal Establishment, Mr. G. Mukande, dated 18th August, 1993.


Finally, Mr. Chairman, Government of the Republic of Zambia gave its position and it will be interesting if I may be allowed to read the letter in full. It reads:






Further to your request yesterday that I put in writing the Government’s position on the Barotseland Agreement 1964, I wish to advise that we have considered your submission in the matter. As we understand it, your case is that this Agreement is alive and should be restored.


It is the Government position that we cannot negotiate this Agreement on the following grounds:-


(a)  That the terms and clauses of the Agreement were incorporated into the Laws of Zambia in 1964, when they became subject to amendment and alteration just as any other Laws.

(b)  That the procedure for amending the law of the land was followed, the said amendments having been tabulated and presented before Parliament and subsequently assented to by the President.


(c)  Our further inquiries show that no judicial process was commenced by the Royal Establishment or any other party aggrieved by the proposed amendments in reasonable time. It is our position that the demand is stale as it has been overtaken by events and is no longer legal.


However Government is willing to discuss other issues which you raised without relating them to the Agreement, such as land issues, grants and welfare of chiefs and indunas. Government is prepared to discuss and resolve these matters politically.”


Mr. Chairman a summary of these facts show without doubt that:


i)             The successive Governments have been toying with the people of Western Province in manipulating the law to reject calls to have the Barotseland Agreement 1964 restored.


ii)            The successive Governments have kept this important undertaking as a secret failing to expose the Barotseland Agreement 1964 to the people of Zambia to read and understand it.


iii)           The slogan of “One Zambia One Nation” has been sung by politicians of the successive Governments without teaching the people where it emanated from.


iv)           The successive Governments failed to include the Barotseland Agreement in subjects like Civics and History so that the young generation could learn about it, thereby creating a generation gap.


v)            As a result a volcano of ill feeling coupled with the generation gap was being built which ended in explosion on 14th January 2011 known to us today as the Mongu Riots.


We cautioned the Government then in our press conference of 11th January on what to do. We were ignored and the consequences are that lives were lost.


All above being the case we hold the successive Governments responsible for the Mongu Riots of 14th January 2011.   




1)    Unfair Treatment of Mbundas in Western Province and Need For Mutual Respect and Co-existence Between Lozis and Mbundas

Mr. Chairman, Mbundas in Western Province live in serious suppression and tribalistic scorn from their perceived Lozi brothers despite the historical background we alluded to in our preamble. It is surprising to note that certain groups of people in this country, and Western Province in particular, are still made to believe that Mbundas are refugees who can be threatened with eviction back to Angola.


i)             In January 2011 during the run up to the Mongu Riots, we received disturbing reports and fliers from Mongu, authored by a group of Barotseland Activists calling themselves ‘Linyungandambo”.  In these fliers, they warned: “This serves to warn the following: Mbundas, Ma Luvales and other tribes that they should start preparing to leave Barotseland by 14th January, 2011 when we shall secede from Zambia. It has been observed that this period around when we have been fighting for this cause, they have not been supportive and we feel its high time they went back to Angola where they came from, failure to comply will lead to loss of lives”.


ii)            On 8th January 2011 one of the Mbunda entrepreneurs had windows to his shop broken by a group of the ‘Linyungandambo’ boys who ran way after the incident at the harbor


iii)           In the submission to The Government of The Republic of Zambia by The Barotse National Council on the matter of The National Constitutional Conference and The Barotseland Agreement 1964, dated 25th August 2009, commented on page 8, paragraph 6 that “As to tribal conflicts, this is an issue blown out of proportion by detractors and that Barotseland, being a nation of 32 tribes, is bound to experience friction among some sections of its people. It should also be noted that some of the tribes of Barotseland came to the kingdom as refugees escaping civil strife in their original countries. Barotseland did not confine these people to refugee camps as is the practice in modern times but received and accorded them due recognition as tribes under their own chiefs in the same way that the other tribes of the kingdom were organized. What is expected from these tribes is to accept the way the kingdom is structured as a nation.


iv)          In June 2005 there was another call by Mr. and Mrs. Mukamba and Mulele Mumpisho when they were interviewed by Aketata Batunda on Radio Liseli, insinuating that Mbundas are finishing forests in Western Province and that they must go back to Angola, warning that one day you will be ruled by a Mukanda initiate (a circumcised). This disturbed Mbundas, thanks to interventions by the Barotse Royal Establishment, the situation was calmed down.


v)            Mbunda Chiefs in Western Province are not being accorded the respect they deserve. Following are cases in point Mr. Chairman:


a)   All Senior Chiefs in Western Province are Lozi and never has the BRE ever thought of recommending a Mbunda Chief to a Senior position as agreed in the Mulambwa/Chiyengele Agreement, and despite their assertion in their submission to The National Constitutional Conference of 25th August 2009 that ‘the other tribes were received and accorded them due recognition as tribes under their own chiefs in the same way that the other tribes of the kingdom were organized. What is expected from these tribes is to accept the way the kingdom is structured as a nation”.



b)   All Mbunda Chiefs in Western Province including the first Mbunda Chief to migrate to Barotseland in 1795, Chief Mundu of Kalabo are not recognized but regarded as Indunas or traditional Counselors serving under Lozi chiefs.


c)    Two Mbunda Chiefs, Chiyengele and Kandala are the only ones recognized, but as Lozi Chiefs due to their changed status through intermarriage roots with the Lozis.


vi)          In 1964 after independence, Mbunda and Nkoya educational book were burnt by some Lozi Government officials to prevent Mbunda and Nkoya languages to be taught in Western Province.      



Mr. Chairman, our appeal to the Government and indeed questions lingering on the minds of the Mbunda Speaking People are:


i)             How many Mbundas have been on the political hierarchy since independence? Mbundas have a number of Professors, Doctors and University Graduates but are not receiving recommendation for appointment. In the recent reshuffles, we as Mbundas are worried that one of the few Mbundas who was in a key position in the country as ZESCO Director Human Resources, has been fired without reason.


ii)            Mbunda is a second largest tribe in Western Province, why is Mbunda language not taught in Western Province? Why is it not specified in the National Census as a distinct language group instead of putting under “others”?


iii)           Why are Mbunda Speaking People not represented on Radio Liambayi and Liseli, community radios within our community?


iv)          Despite the long historical background of the Mbundas in Western Province, only two Mbunda Chiefs, Chief Kandala and Chief Chiyengele Nyumbu are gazette, even then they are recognised as Lozi Chiefs.


v)      Why should Mbunda Chiefs in Western Province be gazetted as Lozi Chiefs when the Mulambwa Agreement is clear about the relationship between Lozis and Mbundas?

2)    Developmental Concerns

1)    Poor developmental infrastructure:

It is clear to every Zambian today that Western Province is the poorest province in Zambia. This is due to poor road network and inadequate educational facilities especially at tertiary level, when some provinces have more than one University. How do you Mr. Chairman expect the province to develop in the absence of key developmental facilities?


2)    Lack of Industries:

Western Province Mr. Chairman, is endowed with a lot of natural resources such as fish, Mangos, rice, timber, cashew nuts, cassava, minerals just to mention a few, but none of these are exploited. A lot of Mango and fish and meat are being ferried to other provinces for sale.




1)    We call upon the Barotse Royal Establihment and Lozis in general to honor the Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty and give the Mbunda Chiefs in Western Province the respect they deserve, if we have to continue leaving with them as allies in military and political matters.


2)    Mongu has no Senior Chief. We call upon Barotse Royal Establishment and the Government to upgrade Chief Chiyengele in Nang’oko as Senior Chief in accordance with the Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty, and correct his gazette recognition notice with Chief Kandala of Mabumbu as Mbunda Chiefs and not Lozi Chiefs.


3)    Western Province has only 11 Chiefs including The Litunga. Lewanika controlled Barotseland using Silalo Indunas because people were less then, but areas in Western Province have more people now making it difficult to administer the people adequately. Depending on Silalo Indunas or Traditional Counselors is no longer feasible due to less respect given to Silalo Indunas now.   Namwala District has 12 Chiefs in Southern Province, how can the whole province have only 11 chiefs?


4)    We call upon the Barotse Royal Establishment and the Government to recognize Chief Mundu, Liumba Palace Kalabo District; Chief Kasimba, Kalumwange Palace, Kaoma District; Chief Kandombwe, Luvuji Palace, Lukulu, Chief Kasabi, Lukute Palace, Kaoma and Chief Lindeho, Chamemba Palace, Kalabo as Mbunda Chiefs. These are not Indunas but Mbunda Royal Blood Chiefs with flywhisks, who came from Angola as Mbunda Chiefs.


5)    We call upon the Barotse Royal Establishment to reconstitute the Barotse National Council to its original form and representative off all chiefs in Western Province, unlike the way it is now where Indunas sign submissions to the Government, in direct reference to the submissions to the national Constitutional Conference dated 25th August 2009. The highlighted sentiments in this submission clearly show that Mbunda chiefs were not represented.


Utilizing these chiefs in National Development will result in development trickling to their subjects who are the grassroots.


6)    We call upon the Government in power to check the red tape in Western Province and balance up the representative levels there. We know that the Chiefs Gazette of Western Province call for appointments from Western Province to have the Litunga’s recommendations. This is slavery to other tribes who are not Lozi. How does the Litunga recommend the installation of a chief who is not of a Lozi Royal Family.  


7)    We call upon Mbunda Speaking People to stop regarding themselves as strangers in Western Province due to persistence unfair tribal treatment from some of their Lozi Speaking brothers. We refuse to be subjugated by another tribe and we don’t believe in subjugating anyone despite the weaknesses.


8)    We call for the encouragement of the spirit of brotherhood among the 32 ethnic groups in Western Province. For example by elevating some Mbunda chiefs to Senior positions and recognizing the Mbunda Chief who have been humiliated to Indunas or Traditional Counselor positions under other chief, when they are also of the Royal families. Well qualified Zambians of Western Province among the 32 ethnic groups should be appointed to Senior Government positions irrespective of their ethnic affiliation. The idea of identifying everyone in Western Province to be Lozi is very discriminatory.


9)    Link all the districts in the province with good tarred roads to boost the commercial activities for the benefit of all Zambians.


10) Construct at least two Universities to alleviate the accommodation and transport challenges experienced by Western Province families seeking higher education in other provinces. This will reduce illiteracy levels in the province.


11) We call upon the Government to woo investors to set up industries to exploit the natural resources abundant in Western Province.


12) The Ndola Oil Refinery in Ndola cannot take the Angolan crude oil, why not invest in a n Oil Refinery in Western Province to take the Angola Crude Oil which is so near to us and yet far? This will greatly help the people of Western Province in form of balanced share of the National cake.       




To conclude Mr. Chairman, when we refer to Barotseland which was a Barotse Protectorate and Barotseland Agreement 1964, it should be understood that it is beyond Western Province as may be taken today. It goes beyond the line of rail, North Western Province and Copperbelt Province, involving five Provinces of Zambia today. And so the Barotseland Agreement 1964 should be understood in its right context. There are a lot of stakeholders who should be involved.  Barotseland Agreement 1964 was not only meant for a few Aluyi in the plains of Zambezi River and Mongu. We believe the Barotseland Agreement 1964 is real and a valid legal document. This document Mr. Chairman, as you know it is a one way root and does not call for secession. People of Western Province voted for President Sata because he promised them restoration of Barotseland Agreement not secession. Why not give Government chance to fulfill the campaign promise?


We are therefore happy with the steps that the Government of the Republic of Zambia is taking and we are confident that the matter will be resolved amicably and soon. It is our expectation that the matters should be dealt with in a manner befitting dignity respect and due honor to both parties. It is a great privilege to our Zambians that one of the parties to the agreement namely our dear beloved former President Dr. Kenneth Kaunda is still alive. We call upon you to offer the Zambians citizens an honor to have the former President Dr. Kenneth Kaunda’s submissions on this Commission to explain this mess. The issues can be resolved only if the parties are honest with each other.


We therefore humbly ask the Government of His Excellency, President Chilufya Sata to be sincere in the initiative to solve the challenge of the Barotse Agreement 1964 which was abrogated by the first Zambian Government led by our beloved former President Kenneth Kaunda, so that the matter is brought to its conclusion and we know that this will be a landmark step in history for this country and the continent as a whole. We are confident that His Excellency, President Chilufya Sata will rise to the occasion as he has shown the desire to settle the matter once and for all. We however, urge him to involve all the necessary stakeholders to the Agreement and not a selected few. It is our hope this document will assist in the development of the Great Republic of Zambia


The Barotseland Agreement 1964 is a legal document and we strongly urge citizens and especially the chiefs of the land of this country to read it and understand it for it is the parent to Zambia by law.


However Mr. Chairman,  we wonder why you as an individual should be used always to look at the Barotseland Agreement 1964 saga. In April 1992, Rodger Chongwe is lawyer representing the Barotse Royal Establishment, October 1992, Rodger Chongwe is Minister of Legal Affairs on Government’s side, November 2011, Rodger Chongwe is Chairman Mongu Riots Commission still bordering on Barotseland Agreement 1964. Mr. Chairman, what new confidence are you bringing to the Zambia people today and yet in all your past engagements the successive Governments remained obstinate? Aren’t your ethics as a learnt Lawyer seriously compromised Mr. Chairman?


Finally Mr. Chairman, what are the terms of reference for this Commission you are chairing? In The Post issue of Wednesday November 2, 2011, the submissions public notice is headed as “Commission of Inquiry Into the Mongu Riots of January 14th, 2011”, but at the bottom of the same notice, your Secretary is given as belonging to the “Commission of Inquiry Into The Barotseland Agreement, 1964”. Which one of the two is correct? Can you assure the Nation that this is not one way of blind folding us?


We rest our submission Mr. Chairman. If there are any questions we will be glad to answer them.   


Ndandula Libingi

National Chairman

Cheke Cha mbunda Cultural and Writers Association



Original Copy of The Barotseland Agreement 1964


60 Responses to What Mbundas told Roger Chongwe’s Commission of Inquiry.  By Courtesy of The Zambian Watchdog 18th December 2011


  1. #Zikinyeho, I was born and brought up in Kazungula a town after livingstone when you are heading towards Western province, I was tought Tonga at my primary school called Makunka Primary. My father use to work at the clinic there, but never did I hear anyone speaking in Lozi, but Tokaleya and in school we use to learn Tonga, period. lozis claim livingstone because Tokaleyas allowed you to settle, but do not take them for granted as they are not part and parcel of your Barotseland issue. I one time went beyond livinstone to Zimbabwe, where the people on the other side also speak Tonga as their language, but due to the influence of Shona and Ndebele some speak abit of these languages.

Kabwe - December 19, 2011

  1. #Muwaniwa, you also seem not to know the boundaries of Brotseland. Livingstone is in Southern province, yes there are many Lozis who have settled there and Toka leyas the owners of the land never count themselves to be Lozis, these are Tongas. Barotseland starts from Mulobezi and not Livingstone, have you ever wondered why people of Kazungula a district after Livingstone city do not speak any Lozi but toka a language related to tonga, actually they learn Tonga in Schools. just Because there are many Bembas from Luapula on the Copperbelt, does not make Copperbelt to be part of Luapula, big NO. Recently Chief Moomba of the Toka people was having langles over land with a Lozi Chief Inyambo Yeta because Tokas belong to Southern province and have never counted themselves to be any close to Lozis. Whenever there is an important guest in Livingstone such as IMF representative, he visits chiefs like Musokotwane and Mukuni because they are the owners of that land which was developed to be a city of livingstone, and not the Litunga of Western province who is not even counted in the area. People should check their maps of Zambia to know where Western province starts. I lived in Livingstone and beyond, Tokas of all surrounding chiefs learn Tonga in their schools and not Lozis, then how can Lozis claim the City only, can they shift it or what? what would happen to the people surrounding the city who are affected by the pollution from the city. How can Easterners claim that Lusaka city belongs to them despite many people speaking Nyanja, and just because it is developed, and say Chongwe does not belong to us, do they know who is behind that development. Chief mukuni, Musokotwane and other zambian stakeholders are the ones behind the development in livingstone.

Kabwe - December 19, 2011


The new PF govt will not bring development. That is patently clear. They are only interested in retribution and proving how bad MMD was. If PF develops any area, it will only be where they come from – Bembaland in general, and Muchinga Province in particular.

Kabemba Mucahabeli - December 19, 2011

  1. SATA cheated the pipo of western province jst bcos he wanted to be president of this country zambia. SATA has now gone to bed with KK who breached BA1964 & u think now sata can turn the tables upside down , far from it.

The disgraced lawyer Rodger Chongwe who cheated that he was shot at and had his throat grazed and demanded billions of zambian kwacha is again cheating the pipo of western province. Nothing will come out of that commission of inquiry.. He will jst pocket huge allowances and go to CRC as a commissioner for more money in his pockets.

ZAMBIANS for how long are we going to be fooled?

presido - December 19, 2011

  1. When I became the President of the Republic of Zambia, I will ensure I create the Kafue Province and make Kaoma it’s Provincial headquarters. Or even bring it between Mumbwa, Kaoma and Lukulu. I will further on divide Central Province into two, Kabwe will manage the other half (Broken Hill Province) while Mumbwa will administer it’s own affairs (Maizebelt Province). The following proposal shall look like this:

1. Southern Province – Choma/ Livingstone
2. Eastern Province – Chipata
3. Barosteland Province – Mongu
4. Kafue Province – Kaoma
5. North Western Province – Solwezi/ Kasempa/ Mufumbwe
6. Copperbelt Province – Ndola
7. Northern Province – Kasama
8. Muchinga Province – Chinsali
9. Broken Hill Province – Kabwe
10. Luapula Province – Mansa
11. Central Province – Mumbwa
12. Lusaka Province – Lusaka

Mbunda Ya Chokwe - December 19, 2011

  1. What people advocating for BA 64 should know is that all the 10 provinces of Zambia need equal attention. Let us not waste time with this sterile debate but rather talk about how the new PF govt will bring development to the whole country especially the largely rural provinces.

Naturalist - December 19, 2011

  1. @Kabwe thumbs up i am fulltym LOZI inshort Aluyi with roots to King Mubukwanu the one who wrestled Barotseland from the Kololos i dont see any need to impose this thing to other areas let alone, Nkoyas need to decide wether to belong to Zambia or Western province a.k.a Barotse Province. they should do this freely Sipula and the likes of other confused Lozis should not force this BA64 to other provinces. I think we are better off alone than to force other tribes who see this as an act of being greedy. Well we need to correct the mistake that Lewanika made. Inshort Barotseland didnot include all these areas being paraded as Barotseland. The real Barotseland is Livingstone the Boundary with Zambia is the Kafue River, northwestern is Kabompo. So why should Lozis cry about these other areas? is this not an act of thieving. You need to reconsider the borders? Dont just day dream???

muwaniwa - December 19, 2011

  1. Mbunda submission is so mixed up that one may term it as partly factual, speculative and desparate. These brothers…and sisters are failing to recognize the fact that all that they may complain about concerning the Lozi is the product of the successive Zambian govt’s unfaithfulness to the BA64. This has made the same govts to employ propaganda aimed at dividing the Lozis (meaning all tribes of Barotseland of whom Mbundas are part). The origin of those fliers mentioned has never been found. Blaming them on Linyungas as Kunda did is only a result of a weak and sick mind. We grew up knowing that Mbundas, Nkoyas, Luvales, Toka Leyas etc were Ma Lozi with different cultures and languages, not foreigners to Barotseland nor enemies. Mbundas must wake up and know where they really belong and where their future lies instead of speculating. They must realize that the BA64 messed them up too and that its restoration wont make things any better. They must understand the meaning of Lewanika and also acknowledge the fact that through Mulambwa mu tomi wa milao, the Aluyi embraced the concept of respect for human rights and human freedom way ahead of most Africans, even in Zambia today, who still struggle with the comprehension of that concept. Thats why ka Banda shot our people. The name ‘MULAMBWA’ means you only buy a dog. He got that name after opposing the sale of human beings as slaves. The best thing that our Mbunda relatives can do is to stop listening to GRZ propaganda and re forge those old forces with the Aluyi and revert to Barotseland’s former position in which their enginuity will be taken to even higher levels than seeking for a political appointment in a govt based in a shanty city.

Zikinyeho Zikinyeho - December 19, 2011

  1. please dont force Lozis to recognise your chieftainship.. Many of you came in the 60s cuz of the war of Savimbi Malheiro Jonas and Edwardo Dos Santos. The fact is you are foreigners. Barotseland is for Lozis all they want is secession. Look you are called bana bamba yenyiyani. mawiko

Hanzila - December 19, 2011

  1. Pwele. Stop comparing Apples and Oranges you fool. Of course Obama is President of the USA because he was born there and hence qualifies to contest for the position.

It is st.u.pid of you to expect a person of another ethnicity and not related to the Litunga bloodlines to be Litunga. It is the same for Chitimukulus, mwata Kazembes, Mpezenis, Monzes, Mukunis, Kapijimpangas etc. Please take your id.iocy where the sun never shines!


  1. Lol. Honestly some people are just dull. This is not the face time someone has said that ‘Lozis’ are not a specific tribe. When bloggers who identified themselves as Lozi like Musiwa Likota argued that Lozis is an almalgamation of more than 25 ethnicities. They were shouted down by ignorant bufoons who went on arguing that Lozis were oppressing ‘other tribes’. To which Musiwa argued was an oxymoron since Silozi is a lingua franca from the Sotho language. He further told you that the 3 former Prime Ministers Lisulo, Mundia and Masheke were all regarded as Lozi but at the micro level they belonged to different ethnicities. However they had certain things in common eg a shared Silozi language and other socio-cultural traits. In short Barotseland had long become a nation even before colonisation. The Aluyi Litungas had down what Sata is failing to do today: unite people from different ethnicities.

Michelo - December 19, 2011


Aminotaman - December 19, 2011

  1. #kabwe, what you said is true to some extent. Us lozis at times should learn to reason, how can all these chiefs whose representatives did not sign to belong to Barotseland accept to be part of us. There was really some illegality in what our Mwanawina was doing. Before we even come to the point at which KK, colonial British and mwanawina signed that document, let us look at the aspect of the legality of belonging to this Barotseland, including people’s land and territories which were included. If we just look at the document KK and Mwanawina signed, without considering it’s validity first, then we cannot get anywhere about this barotseland issue. Yes it is possible to sign something even title deeds for a house which is not yours, but when it comes to legality of the document, it becomes something else. First we have to consider certain facts as pointed out by #Kabwe that, did the people whose territories were included like Lambas, Lenjes, Ilas, Luvales, Kaondes etc, consent to belong to Barotseland, or inclusion of their land was done behind their backs?. If none of their representatives or chiefs consented or appended their signature for acceptance, then they are not part and parcel of it, and the best Lozis can do it to remove illegal land which was mistakenly included without consent from the owners. Tribe is people and not trees, so you cannot say they belong to us when they never signed anywhere to say they want to be part of you. Let us be honest with ourselves as Lozis in some way, how can all these tribes we included in this document accept to honour the wishes of Mwanawina a chief they never recognised, leaving the wishes of their chiefs behind. Those were wishes of mwanawina but we shoud restrict them to our western province not other people’s areas. We have to accept that we are just dreaming.

Imwiko - December 19, 2011

  1. ”We believe the Barotseland Agreement 1964 is real and a valid legal document. This document Mr. Chairman, as you know it is a one way root and does not call for secession. ”

Let this statement be drummed into the Lozis heads. Just negotiate with Government for development but dont ever think of seccesion.

Another point: Next time we want another tribe to advocate for the BA64 cos when you signed,you assumed that all the 5 provinces were part, so dont hi-jack a common cause.

Dont Forget one thing: You signed cos Kaunda was planning to conquer your ka weak kingdom by force if u had failed to sign,honestly, what else wud have made a pipo like you to sign such a document? what was in it for you? Its fear! You were afraid of isolation and possible danger. So, shut up and get down to work. Also if u can not give some powers to the mbundas and nkoyas now, can u give them after seccession? You even have the audacity of lamping everyone under ‘malozi’ just foryo greedy move yet u even fail to share your radio stations with other tribes! pathetic!Fortunately, the mbundas and knoyas know u very well, and they are very much opposed. Everyone came from somewhere, you fools. The blacks in USA came from Africa, everyone knows that, but a black man is USA President, can any other tribe be a Litunga in your case? I dont even want to imagine! Learn to live with others! grow up, be civilised!

Pwele - December 19, 2011

  1. ”However Mr. Chairman, we wonder why you as an individual should be used always to look at the Barotseland Agreement 1964 saga. In April 1992, Rodger Chongwe is lawyer representing the Barotse Royal Establishment, October 1992, Rodger Chongwe is Minister of Legal Affairs on Government’s side, November 2011, Rodger Chongwe is Chairman Mongu Riots Commission still bordering on Barotseland Agreement 1964. Mr. Chairman, what new confidence are you bringing to the Zambia people today and yet in all your past engagements the successive Governments remained obstinate? Aren’t your ethics as a learnt Lawyer seriously compromised Mr. Chairman?”

Chongwe felt like sinking, unless he has no morals of course. so, the report is already biased.waste of resources

Lasa Lasa - December 18, 2011

  1. And unless you do not want to just understand, this Roger Chongwe commission of enquiry was instituted to make Inquiry Into the Mongu Riots of January 14th, 2011. And at the end, as such, to the annoyance of all the concerned, they will be left with no mandate to act on thing such as the appeals on the re-establshement of the Barotse agreement of 1964.

Let us do the first thing first let us get President Sata to commission such an enquiry. For really he hasn’t commissioned one.

Sighter - December 18, 2011

  1. These enquiries were meant to crucify RB and his heads of departments, and nothing more or less. You are all playing the PF game. waste of time.

Sighter - December 18, 2011

  1. Unless one has no ears or eyes. H.E Sata will not honor your demands. This can be perceived from the way he has been making his appointment of senior Govenment officials, even the very commissions of enquiries. Really, is there any integrity in appointing Roger Congwe as chairman of this particular enquiry. Check out the most strategic gov’t institution such as the Military, security wings and Finance department; and even the diplomatic missions.

In short the longer you take more time to persuade gov’t over this issue the more remote it will be for you ‘Lozis’ to take back your birth right which KK denied you.

If you use kids groves then this will not result into anything but just education for the rest of Zambians.

Sighter - December 18, 2011

  1. Hmmmmm. Social studies denied for many years told plainly.

Nemwana - December 18, 2011

  1. This article has made us Mbundas proud, Thanks mwata Libingi,bukebo bunalume obu, mwapanga chipangi chakama manene mwata. No contradition, he mentioned Lozi, in the context that everyone understands it, the people that speak Lozi and claim it to be their language and these pipo come from western province, and connected to the Litunga. People shud know that for any other tribe, other than Lozi have suffered a lot of discrimination, name calling in western Province: Manyukunyuku, Muzwahule, mun’gete etc. Ask anyone who was educated in western province will tell you that. We have stomached a lot. These people are just too full of themselves.They dont want investors, how then do they develop? 1795 when mbundas came into barotse is a long time, why shud we be treated as second class? Thats the time many other tribes entered zambia and they are living freely, why us? Any good Zambian shud oppose succession. Just work hard cos u are fight a loosing and an uphill battle with the pipo on the hill throwing stones, spears etc at you. Just start it…

Kambunda Kayandele thimbu.... - December 18, 2011

  1. #Sipula, to you yes. When did people of Mumbwa send their chief or representative to consent to belong to Barotseland. Without people there wouldn’t be mumbwa so you cannot say Mumbwa belongs to Barotseland when the owners have never been part of it. Don’t you just realise that other provinces or other people are not bothered with that barotseland because from the beginning they knew someone in the name of mwanawina was doing something behind their backs. Sipula give me the date, year and time when people in these areas you claim to be part of barotseland gathered to append signatures that they want to belong to Barotseland. Was it not Mwanawina who was even receiving mineral royalties on behalf of lambas illegally, just because he calimed in his imagination to have conquered a headman. Under our dead bodies can we embrace Lozi as our language, leaving our own beautiful languages. Anyone one can claim a plot for land, but as long as it is not yours the truth remains the same. It is people of western province who are bothered about this BA64, us no because it does not touch us due to the fact that we never sent any representatives to make a consent in Barotseland.

Kabwe - December 18, 2011

  1. Those Mbundas who want to be recognized as Chiefs should come back to Angola. There is no need to be begging the Zambian government to make individuals from an association into chiefs overnight. Most of the places where you want to be recognized as Chiefs, there are Zambian Chiefs already and all land is gazetted .

The Zambian government can not take land from other tribes and give it to Mbundas when you have plenty of land in Angola which is rich in oil and diamonds. The Angolan government is even re-constructing the Benguela railway line which is going to reach Mwinilunga early next year. This makes it easy for most recent Angolan migrants to return home by rail or road.

The author behind this article is exploiting Angolan Citizens who are not aware of the developments in their country to encourage them to stay in Zambia so that they can be used for a few greedy politicians when they are missing out on the integration process put in place by the Angolan government.

Don’t believe these lies, most Mbundas are recent migrants of war and most of them want to go back to Angola but a few politicians are encouraging them to stay on in Zambia when there is no need to.

Readers should also distinguish between old Mbunda and new Mbundas. Most new mbundas are less then 10 years in Zambia. There is no way they want to claim to be chiefs or even Citizens of Zambia.

Lubito resident, Angola. - December 18, 2011

  1. @kabwe, you are right. but by legal status, mumbwa is in barotseland.

Sipula hibajene - December 18, 2011

  1. It is clear that KK was prepared to lie at two critical milestones of his leadership. He lied that he negotiated the BA64 in good taith only to betray it before the ink could dry. He was prepared to lie at another critical milestone when it appeared only devine intervetion could save his presidency. This time the lie was intended to attract Barotse votes. Ubnfortyunately, we will never know to what extent he would have betryed Barotseland again as he lost the highly conveted presidency. Are we seeing the re – edition of the betrayal, or the PF leader will break with his reputation of being most unreliable and do the honesty thing?

Child of the Sky - December 18, 2011

  1. Excellent submission, from the other side of my martenal relatives, truth be told, the tribe groups in Barotseland are closely interwoveb like a reed basket, and it would be a lie to single out one tribal grouping, Thing is Lewanika and early Litungas’ deliberate policy of integration, not withstanding the Kololo (Lozi) language factor, for one to say they are pure (100%) this or other tribe. Scrutinise thw names of the Mongu 14 detainees, the names are sikopekope, witnessing to tribal integration.

Child of the Sky - December 18, 2011

  1. Chongwe you are a disgrace. THanks that in trying to paint RB black, the nation has now come to learn of your greed and lack of integrity. i always wondered why RB was being painted black yet Mambala like were mulya kubili? The old man KK has failed to even guide this nation because he too was a mambala.

mk - December 18, 2011

  1. I ment nothing wrong

oswaldo - December 18, 2011

  1. WHO IS A LOZI: A Glipse at various tribes in barotseland

by Bulozi Nahayaluna on Sunday, October 23, 2011 at 6:02pm

Lozis are not a tribe. They are a nation, a clan.It is a national language in a nation comprisng many tribes, cultures, traditions and kingdoms.

(i) Many of us in the greater baroitseland dont even know which tribe we belong to any more, because we just speak lozi

(ii) One great mistake people make is to think barotseland is western province. the United nations Official borders before 1964 shows that Zambia divided barotseland into five provinces and barotseland is still regarded as the nation without a state.

it will wise for the peoples of barotseland to unite and spearhead their nation foward as was the case before the barotseland agreement was signed. the barotse Native Governement under the barotse national council comprising of all chiefs in barotseland government barotseland, which was a federal state and chiefs had powers over legal, economic and political governance in their chiefdoms.

this is what the Government of the republic of Zambia has destroyed over the years.


This mistake was the signing of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 which brought the Nations of Barotseland and that of Northern Rhodesia into the birth of the Republic of Zambia in October 1964.

Yes Lozi is not a tribe but just a language spoken in barotseland which is a nation whose only grave mistake was to institute a democratic process of togetherness with a people who did not only know what democracy was but also fell short of its understanding and implementation when they became too powerful and saw it fit to abrogate the barotseland agreement 1964.

There are 73 tribes in Zambia of which 38 are from Barotseland as follows:

1. Mbowe

2. Kwangwa

3. Subia

4. Mbukushu

5. Mafwe

6. Nkoya

7. Kwangwali

8. Mbunda(,Lubale etc)

9. Nyengo

10. Kwamashi

11. Sikwamakoma

12. Sikwamwenyi

13. Kwandi

14. Mashasha

15. Imilangu

16. Simaa

17. Maliuwa

18. Mandundulu

19. Mayauma

20. Mandembu

21. Mambumi

22. Makwamulonga

23. Malukolwe

24. Toka-Leya

25. Makwengo

26. Matotela

27. Mashanjo

28. Mahumbe

29. Mananzwa

30. Lushange

31. Makololo

32. Aluyi

33. (maTonga)

34. Luchazi

35. Chokwe

36. (maKaonde)

37. (maLamba)

38. Luvale

Submitted by Sipula Hibajene: Bulozinahayaluna/facebook

Sipula hibajene - December 18, 2011

  1. am so proud to be mbunda we are peacful people.

mrs chi - December 18, 2011

  1. I have enjoyed reading this artitcle. I will make sure that i have a hard copy. I see no long in it though the cry of the Mbundas must head by the Aluyi and the government of Zambia. It does not mention seccession but more powers to deal with their internal matters. The Mbundas want fair treatment by the Aluyi . They want the province to be developed with in corabolation with the investors,both foreign and local ones. May HE listen to this.

oswaldo - December 18, 2011

  1. #Sipula, Even if I am lamba and my wife is Lenje, staying in Mumbwa, non of us would accept to belong to the Barotseland of yours, and we cannot accept to speak that language leaving Lenje our mother tribe. We cannot speak a language imposed by the kololo when we have our own languages. Lozis accept that your barotseland is failing because it included land for people who never consented to belong to Barotseland or to be part of BA64. Stick that BA64 to western province and never you infect other areas which are not part. Can’t you see we are not even bothered because we know that we are not part, that document covers only western province. No one will ever bend to the Litunga leaving chief Mungule, we do not even recognise your Litunga as a chief at all. He is like any other chief in all provinces. Kaondes, Luvales, Lundas stopped speaking that Lozi language because they realised that their chiefs and languages are more important than Lozi, so take a leaf from that your BA64 is not wanted where you were including our land illegally and behind our backs.

Kabwe - December 18, 2011

  1. We have spoken, and spoken and spoken that lozi is not a tribe. there are 38 tribes in barotseland and part of the barotseland speak a language called lozi.
    however, narrow minded people think that lozis are trying to enslave people, of otjher tribes. the noyas cried foul!
    Now the mbundas have clariefied this issue. western province is not barotseland and barotseland is not western province. barotseland is the earea that was divided into five provinces by corrupt UNIP and KK. today, we are happy that the kaondes, tongas, illas, lambas, kwangwas etc are uniting to claim their land and showing willingness to belong to barotseland.wonder why hakainde, milupi, kavindele are never accepted in mainland zambia? because they come from a land called barotseland! wake up and do the right thing. zambia need the barotselamnd in its constitition or else

Sipula Hibajene - December 18, 2011

  1. Mbundas are here to stAy… Lozis yu can hung

game - December 18, 2011

  1. Honestly speaking i have respect for the author of this article.

bull dog - December 18, 2011

  1. The writer of this article is an Intelligent person, may God richly bless you. Well researched, educated and well informed.

bull dog - December 18, 2011

  1. this is a nicely done piece

njamba - December 18, 2011

  1. Hon. Chongwe you are used in this issue and once people see that you can not resolve this issue, the next time people will evolt into injurring you indirectly with big stones by saying you are a betrayer.

Sena - December 18, 2011

  1. Thank you Cheke Cha mbunda Cultural and Writers Association, you are really patriotic. You have solved our puzzle. So this is the trick of the Aluyi to steal Diamonds from Zambia. They are Mambalas, you have exposed them. We are on your side, you can count on our support. They will never again dominate you.

bull dog - December 18, 2011

  1. Mbundi Isiteketo – What a good observation. I am a Mbunda by tribe and what Ndandula Livingi has explained is true in some cases. The only missing mark he has contradicted himself is on the issue of Lozi lamguage. Yes there are diferences in every region where ethinic is concerned. Even Bembas themselves refuse to be called Bembas- you wil hear one calling hiself that I am a Lunda wa kwa mwata Kazembe, Tabwa, etc.

The point is you can not win when you are divided. What I have observed is that many conflicts are brought up by the colored in tribe ( Half tribes- son or daugther born from two diferent tribes) One will call him/herself a certain tribe if he/she brought up under patrilinue/matrilinue influence of where he/she is been brought up.

Barotse agreement was their there as a combinational treaty of all westen province tribes and not one would call I am a Lozi. No.
To have it into consideration, you whether the Kololo, luyi, kwangwas and others who claim you are Lozi dont fight the Nkoyas and the Mbundas. In fact if the Nkoyas tell their story, you will be suprised to discover that they were first people to settle into western province today because they cover both Northwestern province,Western province and Central province but they are quiet.

My appeal to all the leaders of this country is that when you are out spoken of one, dont call others as a small tribe.

Sena - December 18, 2011

  1. Where are those less informed Lozis who no nothing about BA64 and are only driven by their greedy to comment? comment now?Before you do, know the following:
    1. Barotse is not western province or mongu plain (Includes angola, namibia, n/western, southern and Copperbelt province etc).
    2. You should first find yourself: are you Lozis, Makololo or aluyi?
    3. You have already shown tribelism to Mbundas, nkoyas who supposed to support your greed move, so forget about their support
    4. The agreement is valid, but wen it says the people of barotse, it also means the Lenjes, lambas, tongas, so shut up and let others also champion it.
    5. The BA64 doesnt talk about succession, why does have to come into discussion always?
    6. The mbundas fought your wars since 1795, stayed with taught you all the skills you know cos basically u are just nomads following behind animals, why should u say they shud go to angola? Foolish

Conclusion: One Zambia, one nation. Lets just talk about development in western province, any other issue is a dead wood.

Kambunda Kayandele thimbu.... - December 18, 2011