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Origin of The Mbunda People, Migration History and The Kingdom

 

Bantu Migration Routes from Cush and the Island of Meroe



The Mbunda Migration Routes from Sudan

 

The history of Central Africa recognizes the major migration groups who trace their origin from Sudan1 and the Congo.2  Among these migrations are those of the Bantu Kingdoms of Southern Africa.

Around 1600 Most of southern and central Africa was sparsely populated. The Bantu ethnic groups were agricultural people. They kept herds of domestic cattle and goats. They knew how to plant and cultivate crops like millet, sorghum and cassava.

Central and southern Africa were far more sparsely populated. The people here were not mostly Bantu but the San or bushmen. They lived as hunter/gatherers. They roamed in small groups over large areas of land in order to hunt game and collect the fruits, nuts, grains and plants which they needed for food.

The agricultural skills of the Bantu allowed them to live in larger villages and their population grew. Inevitably as populations grew disputes would arise between different groups of people within the same ethnic group. If these disputes could not be resolved to the satisfaction of both sides then it was common that the disaffected group would decide to leave.

In the 1400s a group of Bantu people left what is now Sudan during the Bantu migration. Among these were the Mbunda, one of the oldest and biggest ethnic grouping in Southern Africa.

Establishment of The Mbunda Kingdom In Kola (Now Congo DRC)

The Mbunda Kingdom dates back from well before the Mwantiyavwa Dynasty was established in Kola.3  The Mbunda trace their origin from Sudan,4 trekking southwards through Kola where they came in contact with the Luba and Ruund Kingdoms.5 While in Kola, the Mbunda people's first Monarch was King (Mwene) Nkuungu. When King (Mwene) Nkuungu died his daughter Naama took over as the second Mbunda Monarch at the Palace of Namampongwe. During the reign of Queen (Vamwene) Naama, the following obligatory regulations for royalty were proclaimed:
First, that a king or chief should marry a grand-daughter of the royal line.
Second, that the reigning monarch and chiefs should come from the sisters of previous monarchs and chiefs.
Third, that when a reigning queen and chieftainesses went into seclusion during their menstrual periods, the Mukwetunga (husband of the queen) should avail himself of the royal regalia and act on her behalf.
Fourth that if the reigning queen and chieftainesses were unmarried, then one of the brothers of the reigning queen would take the insignia of royalty and act on her behalf.
6

Queen (Vamwene) Naama had four children; Nkonde (male), Chinguli (male), Yamvu (female) and Lukokesha Female).

It was also during her reign that the Mbunda fought off groups of hostile pygmies (tumonapi) who were described as very short people who did not grow any crops nor domesticate any animals, but who were expert trappers and hunters who shot wild game with poisoned arrows (mingamba ya vulembe). They were also very skilful collectors of seeds, leaves, berries, roots and the fruits of wild plants.

It was in the palace headquarters of Namampongwe that all important state rituals, ceremonies or festivals were held. As the centre and focal point of the burgeoning Mbunda ethnic group and state, Namampongwe had the state armory where, surplus weapons of war (vitwa vya ndthzita) were kept.

The Mbunda were talented iron (vutale) and copper (vunegu) workers and proficient hunters and soldiers. They were also remarkably skilled at the art of making pots and jars of baked clay. The Mbunda cultivated the tropical forest which was found in where they grew assorted crops. They also kept domestic stock.

Queen (Vamwene) Naama died at the capital of Namampongwe in Kola. After the death of Queen (Vamwene) Naama and after deliberations among the royal advisors it was resolved that another woman should take over from the late Queen (Vamwene) Naama. It was felt that a woman ought to succeed to the throne. This was in recognition of the ordeal women experience during the time of giving birth. It was further decreed that if a female monarch was crowned, she should not get married. If she did get married then she should surrender her royal bracelet to her immediate brother.

 

Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu was enthroned to succeed her mother, the late Queen (Vamwene) Naama, as the third sovereign of the emerging Mbunda ethnic group and state. Following the death of Queen (Vamwene) Naama, her son, (Prince) Munamwene Nkonde, married his two sisters, respectively called Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu and Princess (Vamunamwene) Lukokesha.

Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu bore the following offspring with her brother Nkonde:
1. Katongo (male)
2. Chiti (male)
3. Nkole (male)

Her sister Princess (Vamunamwene) Lukokesha also bore the following offspring with her brother Nkonde:
1. Chinguli (male)
2. Chimbangala (male)
3. Yambayamba (male)
4. Nkonde (male
5. Chombe (male)

 

Interaction With The Lunda and Luunda People

After some time the Mbunda shifted their base within the Kola area and settled in a place more favourable than their previous habitation, Namampongwe. They found Ruund (Luunda) people already settled in this area. Later on Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu married a Ruund (Luunda) hunter and her brother Prince (Munamwene) Nkonde was so incensed with her conduct that he left the area in frustration anger and coined a song as follows:

Ngungu elelo tambula kwendeye lelo,  

Woo, tambula kwendeye!
which means:
The insult forced them to depart.

According to the Mbunda custom of the time Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu should not have married. In the case where she did marry she should have surrendered the chieftainship to her brother Prince (Munamwene) Nkonde. Instead she surrendered the chieftainship to her Ruund (Luunda) husband. It is from this split that the Ruund (Luunda) chieftainship developed in the 15th century; the children of Prince (Munamwene) Nkonde with Queen (Vamwene) Yamvu descend to form the Ruund (Luunda) chieftainship of Mwantiyavwa.

In 1690 the Ruund (Luunda) ruler adopted the style Mwaant Yaav [Mwaanta Yaava]

From Prince (Munamwene) Nkonde and his children with Princess (Vamunamwene) Lukokesha we find the continuation of the central Mbunda chieftainship (Chiundi).

Mbunda Kingdom Re-Established At The Confluence Of Kwilu And Kasai Rivers, In The Now Congo DRC

Prince Nkonde led the majority of the disenchanted populace away from Namampongwe and later settled near the confluence of the Kwilu and Kasai rivers.7 Prince Nkonde was anxious to seek the guidance of his ancestral spirits concerning his leaving Kola in protest of Yamvu's violation of Mbunda custom. He went hunting and killed a roan antelope (meengo). The killing of such a magnificent beast signified that the ancestral spirits approved of his action and served as a censure of Yamvu's conduct.

It was during the reign of King (Mwene) Nkonde that the Mbunda resolved to migrate to new territories where they could search for fertile land and settle down to farm. A place where they could expand and consolidate the structures of their state and ethnic group.

The major factors which stimulated their migration were as follows: 

They found the tropical forests an extremely hard and difficult place in which to struggle for their survival.                                                                                          

There was the cutting down and stumping of the very tall trees, as well as the digging out of their numerous roots, which was a physically taxing exercise.                              

These hardships were further compounded by the botanical scenario of countless wild plants which germinated and grew so luxuriantly and quickly that it was a relentless and onerous task to maintain the fields and gardens of varied crops as required.       

Ruminants could not be domesticated, due to lack of grass for them to feed on, complicated by the presence of tse-tee fly which could be detrimental to their health.

The Mbunda also disliked the perpetual dewy atmospheric conditions (mbundu ya muchuvukila) which were accompanied by stifling, humidity and ceaseless rainfall (nyondthzi ya muchuvulila).                                                                             

They also disliked the rocky soils (livu lya mamanya) and the lack of sufficient wild game and fish (lisholo) of which they were so fond.                                                  

Finally, they feared the rampant epidemics of small pox (mushongo wa lyale), which had taken a great toll of life amongst them.

The Majority Mbunda People Migrate Further Southwards Out of The Now Congo DRC

The Mbunda language spoken by the Mbunda group that remained in the DR Congo, entirely separated from the rest of their people, is of course a special case. Due to passage of time and interaction with other languages, it has become quite different from the variants spoken in Angola, Zambia and Namibia, and is today even considered as belongingi to a different linguistic category.8

Prior to their migration, scouts (tumenga) were sent forth to gather surveillance data and explore the geographical and other features of the territories beyond their areas of habitation. The scouting expedition, was lead by two Princes, namely, Prince (Munamwene) Chimbangala, and Prince (Munamwene) Chombe, who were both sons of King (Mwene) Nkonde respectively. Two other men of noble ranks, who comprised the expedition were, Mwata Chombe and Mwata Kapyangu.

The expedition explored a large area to the west and discovered an unknown river which they crossed and then went on to discover the valley of the Lwena river, a tributary of the Zambezi river whose source is in present day Angola. The scouts returned to the camp where the Mbunda were settled, near the confluence of the Kwilu and Kasai rivers. The expedition then tendered a favourable report to the king.

King (Mwene) Nkonde and his subjects built a shrine for offering to their ancestral spirits and authored the salutation as follows:

Mbunda ovoo!
Mbunda va thon'o
Yafuta na ninga
Yakatavu ka ndongo
Mbunda ya Naama ya Nkuungu
Vakulu voshe kamunungathane
Kwithu, kwithu
Muyilya muvinena
Mbunda oyoo.

This means:
Here is your meat and red-brown soil!
Delicious cooked meat is good
With pounded groundnuts added to it.
The soil and meat of Queen Naama and King Nkuungu.
May all the ancestral spirits unite and consolidate themselves.
Be blessed and further blessed.
You consume the meat and then return it.
Here is your meat and red-brown soil!

Prince Nkonde was enthroned as the fourth Mbunda monarch in a palace called Mapamba and, before his death, his son Prince Chinguli was enthroned as the fifth Monarch of the Mbunda.

King (Mwene) Nkonde, unable to travel due to old age sent his son Chinguli who had just taken over from him as the fifth Monarch to go south and search for better land for their settlement. This is the only time the Mbunda had two ruling Monarchs. King (Mwene) Chinguli was commissioned by his father to go out and seek new lands for the people. He led an expedition which travelled southwestwards (Mumbwela) in the direction of what is now called Namibia.

The First Migration Route Led By King Mwene Chinguli Cha Nkonde

Taking a more central route into the now Angola, the southwest of the confluence of Kwilu and Kasai river, King Mwene Chinguli traveled all the way south to the now Kwandu Kuvango fighting the Bushmen and replacing them in the new found lands with a trail of Mbunda descendants who later came to be called the Chimbandi, the Ngonjelo, the Humbi, the Lwimbi and the Nyemba. King (Mwene) Chinguli never returned to Kwilu/Kasai to report his new found settlement lands.

Chinguli's children were:
1. Mbaao (f)
2. Nkonde (m)
3. Luputa (m) 

After a long wait and before the death of King (Mwene) Nkonde the fourth Monarch, King (Mwene) Chinguli's daughter Mbaao was installed as the sixth Monarch to replace the father. Queen (Vamwene) Mbaao was left with the responsibility to migrate the Mbunda to better settlement lands from Kwilu/Kasai.

During Queen (Vamwene) Mbaao's reign, the Mbunda embarked on their second migration expedition to the southeast of Kwilu and Kasai rivers.

Vamwene Mbaao bore the following children:
1. Kwandu (m)
2. Chondela (m)
3. Kaamba (f)
4. Mbayi (f)
5. Lilu (m)

After the death of Queen (Vamwene) Mbaao there arose a period of disquiet and tumult as a result of the contentious factions which were involved in the choosing of another sovereign ruler for the Mbunda state. One faction advocated the candidature of Prince (Munamwene) Luputa , who was one of Chinguli cha Nkonde's sons. The other faction championed Princess (Vamunamwene) Kaamba, who was one of Queen (Vamwene) Mbaao's daughters. In the royal lobbying that ensued, Princess (Vamunamwene) Kaamba became the choice of the Chifunkuto, which elected the Kings. The Princess was enthroned as Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba. She was the seventh Monarch to preside over the affairs of the Mbunda people.

Vamwene Kaamba bore children as follows:
1. Chingwanja (m)
2. Mulondola (m)
3. Ndongo (m)
4. Katheketheke (f)
5. Muyeji (f)

The Second Migration Route Led By Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba

Under Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba the Mbunda had explored and settled new lands to the south.
8 During one of their migrations, they came across more bands of pygmies (tumonapi, whom they engaged in armed combat and vanquished.. The Mbunda travelled up to a great river, whose name they did not know. In the process of crossing the river, one of the royal Princesses, Princess (Vamunamwene) Mbayi, one of the daughters of Queen (Vamwene) Mbaao, and who was a sister to Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba, drowned in this unnamed river's turbulent waters.

In reminiscence of the unfortunate fate that befell Princess (Vamunamwene) Mbayi, the bereaved Mbunda named that river as the Lindonga lya Mbayi. Through the passage of time, Lindonga lya Mbayi, which literally means, "the great river of Mbayi", became abbreviated to Lya Mbayi. To this day, the Mbunda still call the Zambezi river "Lya Mbayi". The Mbunda are also reminded of that fateful crossing of their distant forebears, with the praise coined thus:

"Lya Mwenembayi lya mukindakinda alijavuka ali na chikathi kuwethi na chikathi ku umujavuka"

Which means;

 
You dare not cross the turbulent great Lya Mwenembayi river, without the use of a paddle.

After the crossing of the Lyambayi or Zambezi river, as it is known today, the Mbunda under the leadership of Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba continued south and entered the drier area of the now Angola.

This was a very sandy area with small rivers which were all tributaries of the Zambezi River. Like the Zambezi these smaller rivers had very wide flood plains which were wonderful areas for grazing cattle. Even better the higher lands adjacent to the flood plains were ideal for planting their favorite crop, cassava. It was along these tributaries to the Zambezi that the first Mbunda decided to settle in what is now Angola.

 

This land was also prized by the bushmen who lived there. They survived by hunting the wildebeest which lived on the flood plains. They gathered food from the trees and plants which grew along the edge of the plains. They were disturbed by the presence of these newcomers. The Mbunda also liked to hunt wild beast. They also enjoyed the fruits nuts and grains they found growing along the plain.

The bushmen found the presence of the newcomers, the Mbunda, to be intolerable. It was plain to them that both groups could not remain there. The bushmen decided to attack the Mbunda. Their problem was that they were few in number. Their hunter gatherer methods never allowed them to live in groups larger than 15 to 20. The Mbunda were already establishing villages which were larger than that.

The bushmen were not warriors. Their energy was needed to hunt game. For them it had always been better to walk away from a fight. There was so much open land and their lives were dangerous enough without fighting other men. However this time they decided to fight. The Mbunda knew how to fight. They had fought skirmishes with bushmen all throughout their journey through the Congo. They expected they would have to fight to keep this new land in the now Angola. They were ready and confident. They had the bow and arrow and they were experts in its use.

The fighting did not last very long. The bushmen attacked the Mbunda in their village and were quickly driven off. The Mbunda chased the bushmen and killed all the men. They captured the women and children. The children were raised as Mbunda while the women were allocated out as wives. The women were very desired because of their large protruding buttocks and their yellow skin.

First Settlement Along Mithimoyi River, Re-Establishment of The Mbunda Kingdom and The Beginning of Mbundaland

The Mbunda set their first capital at Mithimoyi. However, the need for more settlement land was still vital to the quickly growing population. Queen (Vamwene) Kaamba decided to send some more Mbunda to search for more settlement land to the south. That group of Mbunda settled at nearby river region called Luchathzi. These were later called after that river as Luchazis. However, some of this group moved westwards to Chimbandi, finding the descendants of King (Mwene) Chinguli who chased them. In their flight they sung a song, "Mutemba twatuye, vaile ku Chimbandi vanakatunta lusi, meaning, "Mutemba let us leave, those that migrated to Chimbandi came running in their flight". During this flight, they also made a fire in a process called "Chimvweka".

The Mbunda prospered and the land along these western tributaries of the Zambezi was their home.

The two route migrations of the Mbunda from the confluence of Kwilu and Kasai rivers gave way to a thirteen (13) Mbunda descendant family of Mbunda Mathzi, the Chimbandi, the Humbi, the Ngonjelo, the Luimbi, the Nyemba, the Luchazi, the Sango, the Mbalango, the Nkangala, the Yauma, the Ndundu and the Mashaka.

The Mbunda eventually moved southwards to a larger settlement, where the Mbunda Kingdom continued to flourish in what became known as Mbundaland from Lungevungu river to what is now Cuando Cubango Province, with Lumbala Nguimbo becaming their capital.

The Mbunda Kingdom To Expand Southwards To Cuando Cubango Under King Mwene Kathangila Ka Mukenge - The Twelfth Monarch

 


It was in the reign of King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge that the Mbunda again expanded and settled in new lands. He left with some of his nobility and prince-consorts (Vimyata) and a lot of people, following the trail of King Mwene Chinguli cha Nkonde, the fifth monarch and reached Chivanda, now Namibia. He went on to cross Lungevungu, Lwanginga and Kwandu rivers, with his people, but didi not find King Mwene Chinguli. King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge found out that King Chinguli cha Nkonde had long left for Vimbundu and Vimbangala lands. King Mwene Kathangila settled in Kweve river area, the tributary of Kavangu river, there is where he died. All the Mbunda, King Mwene Kathangila traveled with settled there, and their Mbunda language today is mixed with other languages.

 

 
During their migrations, the Mbunda had once more to contend with opposition bands of itinerant Bushmen (Vashekele or Tundthzama). The wiry Bushmen had encampments at the sources of the Lungevungu, Lukonya, Luyo, Lwanginga, Kuvanguyi, Kwanavale Kwitu, Kwime, Kwiva, Munyangwe, Lutembwe and Kwandu rivers. The Mbunda engaged them in pitched battles until the courageous Bushmen were almost annahilated. The remnants were driven across the Kwitu river.

 


The Mbunda narrations about the earlier travels of King Mwene Chinguli, one of the progenitors of the Mbunda royal dynasty, had been handed down through the generations. King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge wished to emulate his illustrious predecessor and directed his attention to plans for the expansion of the Mbunda Kingdom. The migration of King Mwene Kathangila from Mithimoyi to Kweve was likened to split of the Mbunda ethnicity, because he was followed by many people including the Mbwela who enjoyed good interaction with the Mbunda at the source areas of Lyambayi (Zambezi) river, Luena and Mithimoyi. A great number of the Mbunda though, remained alone Mithimoyi, at the confluence of Luena and Lyambayi (Zambezi) rivers. Those Mbunda people that remained, remembered King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge well in the song that records te hopes of the king and how he was implored to curtail his explorations in favor of attending to the affairs of the Mbunda Kingdom.9

 

 

Shatukila Kathangila mwaya (repeated twice)
Ija umone milonga ya Mbunda,
Yauno mwaya Mwene Kathangila,
Kapanga miyati ways nakulila,
Njilinyenga Mwene Kathangila,
Likiko lya Mbunda ways nakulila.


The song means:

 


Make haste for Kathangila, who is travelling.
Come back and take care of your Mbunda
There goes King Kathangila
He who split the tribe goes weeping
My heart aches for King Kathangila
The protector and inspirer of the Mbunda, who travels
While shedding tears.

 

 
This song was sung long ago, in the times that the Mbunda lived with the Lwena and the Mbwela at the source areas of Lyambayi (Zambezi) river, Lwena, Mithimoyi and Lumbala, not Lumbala Ngimbu but Lumbala Kakenge. It is still sung by present day diviners in their rituals and ceremonies.


In the course of time, King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge, dispatched Prince Munamwene Ndongo, who was a son of King Mwene Chingwanja and his followers, to settle in the valleys of the Kwandu river.Prince Munamwene Ndongo went to settle on an island that to this day is still known as Lithivi lya Kandungo within the waters of the Kwandu river. Lithivi refers to a species of trees which grow to huge proportions while Kandungo is the name of the discoverer of the island which is located near the confluence of the Kwandu river and its tributary, the Kembo. In that time they composed a song eulogizing those trees:

 


Kwlingi ndende ku chihongo,
Kulithivi lya Kandungo
Tuyeni chavuke vuke,
Kwalinga ndende ku chihongo

This was a song they sung when going to work at that place of big tres called "lithivi lya Kandungo". In his migrations King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge journeyed up to the Kweve, a tributary of the Kwitu river and died there.

 

 
King Mwene Kathangila ka Mukenge's reign was simultaneous with that of his sister Chieftainess Vamwene Chioola cha Mukenge who was the first female royal to assume the newly lowered position of female rulership and statecraft among the mbundea people. Only those who had been to Mukanda initiation ritual could succeed to the Monarch status. Following Mbunda people custom, only the maternal nephews of the reigning sovereign could succeed to the Monarch. Chieftainess Vamwene Chioola cha Mukenge bore five children with Consort Mukwetunga Mushinge, namely:

 

 
1) Prince Munamwene Yambayamba Kapanda (m),
2) Prince Munamwene Chingumbe (m),
3) Princess Vamunamwene Mpande (f),
4) Princess Kamana (f) and
5) Princess Muulo (f).

The first and second were Princes who later became illustrrious and revered Kings and statesmen of the Mbunda people, whilst the other three offspring were Princesses.

 

The Mbunda Kingdom Continues To Expand: The First Mbunda Kings Move From Mithimoyi On The Upper Zambezi To Settle In The Lungevungu Valley - Under King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda; The Thirteenth Monarch

 

 
King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda ka Chioola was the first King of the Mbunda people to leave the Lwena-Upper Zambezi area, called Mithimoyi, to move south and occupy the upper and middle Lungevungu valley and country.

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda was the thirteenth sovereign ruler of the Mbunda ethnic group. He left the Mithimoyi chieftainship to his young brother, Chief Mwene Chingumbe. His uncle, King Mwene Kathangila and his brother King Mwene Yambayamba left him south of Lyambai river called Mithimoyi. King Mwene Kathangila was first to leave, then King Mwene Yambayamba followed.

KingMwene Yambayamba Kapanda gathered his important councillor (Vimyata), and his Prime Minister (Mwato) Likupekupe and traveled south to the Lungevungu river. Minor Mbunda chiefs and Vimyata had been sent by King Mwene Yambayamba's predecessors, to settle in the Lungevungu valley and country long before King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda himself moved there from the Upper Zambezi. King Mwene Lweembe lwa Chingwanja and his regent son King Mwene Katete had sent:

 

  • Prince Munamwene Mulondola wa Kaamba to settle in the Lushe and Lungevungu area, 

  • Prince Munamwene Ngongo and Princess Vamunamwene Katheketheke ka Kaamba to settle in the Mwangayi-Lungevyngu valleys and country,

  • Nobleman (Mwata) Ngongi and Nobleman Mwata Mukila were settled in the Lungevungu, at the confluence of the Luyo,

  • Nobleman Mwata Ngongo had been sent to settle at the confluence of the Kwandu and its tributary, the Kembo, at Kandungo island,

  • Prince Munamwene Mwiinga wa Chingwanja occupied the Luthivi area,

  • Prince Munamwene Luputa lwa Chingwanja took control of the Kanathi,

  • Prince Munamwene Nkombwe ya Chingwanja controlled the source of the Ndala river.

All of these belong to the Mbunda Mathzi (Katavola),10 the central royal lineage of the Mbunda monarch. This language is not to be confused with Ngangela. In fact "Ngangela is one of the ethnographic classification categories invented during colonial times in a series of African countries which do not correspond to one people held together by a common social identity".

Mbunda people preferred re soil, they didn't want to settle in whitish soil to the east of Lungevungu river. The King and his people followed Lungevungu river to the west until they found the reddish mbunda soil at the confluence of Luyo and Lungevungu rivers. Where Luyo joins Lungevungu river, thats where King Yambayamba built his Palace, which they named Livambi. The Palace was surrounded in a fence, hence the Palace and its fence was named 'Chimpaka cha Livambi' (Livambi fence). The moving of King Yambayamba Kapanda from Mithimoyi, at the Luena area of the Upper Zambezi, to the Lungevungu river and country was a historical landmark in the history of the Mbunda people.

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda reached the Lungevungu at a place not far from its confluence with the Zambezi and stayed on the northern side of the river for some time. This was at the time that King Mboo was ruling the Aluyi of Barotseland.

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda and his followers decided to scout for land up the Lungevungu river. He followed the Lungevungu north-west until they found the reddish mbunda soil11 (livu lya mbunda) at the confluence of the Luyo tributary and the Lungevungu river. "Livu lya mbunda" is the reddish brown soil from which the Mbunda people derive the name of their ethnic group VaMbunda; people of the reddish-brown soil. They were known by the name of Mbunda even before they came to the Lungevungu.

 

At the confluence of the Luyo and the Lungevungu, King Yambayamba Kapanda built a fortified capital called 'Chimpaka cha Livambi'. It was from Livambi that King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda took conquering and occupation expeditions which brought the country between the Lungevungu, Kembo-Kwandu confluence, Kwitu northern area under his control and the country between the Kwandu, the Luanginga and the Lungevungu, west of Barotseland also came under King Yambayamba Kapanda and his Mbunda people.

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda Expands The Mbunda Kingdom Territories, Further South

 
After King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda ka Chioola had settled at the Palace of Livambi, he undertook expeditions to occupy more land which marked the borders of the then new country of Mbunda people. He also dispatched Chiefs and Noblemen to explore and settle new lands:

1. Prince Munamwene Kalanda and Prince Munamwene Lupote lwa Mbandthzimo and Nobleman Mwata Kavihu to Kwanavale, Kembo and Kuvanguyi.
2. Prince Munamwene Mukonda to Kembo.
3. Chieftainess Vamwene Mununga and Chieftainess Vamwene Chioola to Luyo.
4. Prince Munamwene Lyelu to Luthsiyi.
5. Prince Munamwene Chingumbe to Lukonya.
6. Prince Munamwene Chondela to Kwandu.

 

 

At this time most of the Mbunda people were still at Mithimoyi and Luena areas under Chief Mwene Chingumbe, the younger brother of King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda. In the Upper Zambezi, the Mbunda people lived alongside the Mbwela, many of whom were absorbed into the expanding Mbunda culture. mbunda oral tradition does not mention any conflicts between the Mbunda and the Mbwela ("Mbwela" means people of the east in the Mbunda languange). The new lands which King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda claimed and occupied were almost uninhabited except for camps of intinerant Bushmen living in scattered groups.

 

 
From Livambi, Yambayamba Kapanda traveled to the west until he reached the headwaters of the Lungevungu at a plateau then called Kandthzelendthzendthze, the place where the Lungevungu, Kwandu and Kwitu rivers have their source. Here, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda met the Humbi, Luimbi and the Ngonjelo who were moving away from fighting with the Nyemba and the Chimbandi across the Kwitu river. These are the five Mbunda descendant enthnic groups from the earlierking Chinguli, the fifth Mbunda monarch's trail in search of good settlement land for the mbunda people from the confluence of Kwilu and Kasai rivers.12

 

 

KingMwene Yambayamba Kapanda ka Chioola the thirteen Mbunda monarch engaged them in fighting and stopped them from moving eastward into the country the Mbunda people had already claimed and occupied (two centuries earlier). These ethnic groups turned and followed the Kwitu river with their chiefs. King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda left Nobleman (Mwata Chuma and some warriors to settle and rule that country for him on the Kunte river, which marked the western frontier of the Mbundaland.

 

 
King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda and his main party continued their expedition down the Kwitu river. The people across the Kwitu scattered and ran away to the south-west upon hearing of the approach of King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda. They were not followed but were just left to go away. At Kweve stream, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda left Nobleman Mwata Chikongo and some warriors to guard and rule that area, while Chief Mwene Tuta was left at Mavinga to rule and guard it.

 

 
King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda's party continued their expedition to the confluence of the Kwitu and Kavangu rivers, then on to the confluence of Kwandu and its tributary the Kembo, where Nobleman (Mwata Ndongo, who had earlier been sent to occupy that area from Mithimoyi (Upper Zambezi), was settled by King Mwene Kathangila (ku Lithivi lya Kandungo). the time that King Mwene Kathangila did not leave another Chief or Nobleman there. The places of Kwitu, Kweve and Kwitu-Kavangu marked the western and south western frontiers of King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda Kingdom and his Mbunda people.

 

 

At Lyamuya pool on the Kwandu river, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda met a party of hostile Bushmen who attacked them. These Bushmen, under their leader Chishiwile used their usual poisoned arrows in their hit and run fashion. The Mbunda hunted down the Bushmen for two days and wiped out their band. Chishiwile was captured and beheaded. King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda left Nobleman Mwata Chondela with some warriors to settle and rule the Lyamuya Pool area. From that time the Bushmen have known the Mbunda people as their superiors, saying: "A person of the village, because they are people of the bush" (Munu-wa-limbo, mwafwa vakevo vanu va shwata). There have been pockets of Bushmen to the south of the Mbundaland since the days of King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda, but they have not made troubles. Most Bushmen have retreated further south and avoided contact with the Mbunda people.

 


From Lyamuya, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda and his party made his way north towards the Luanginga river. He reached Luanginga at a point far south-east of the Tembwashange rapids. Having seen the river for the first time, he explored it upstream until the party came to the rapids which the Mbunda people call Chipupa cha Tembwashange. King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda was satisfied that the course of the river lay through the land he had explored and claimed for himself and his people.

 


From the Lwanginga, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda and his party traveled back to his capital of Livambi on the Lungevungu after annexing the following rivers while crossing some of the them: Kavuyi, Mulayi (Lyumba in Kalabo), N'inda ya Kathanga, Lwati (Lweti in Kalabo), Nengu, Mushuma, N'inda ya Mwene Ngimbu, (now called Lumbala Ngimbu) Lukula, Kashwango, Lwanginga River, Lufuta, Lutembwe and then back to the Luyo confluence at Livambi. These rivers flow into the Lungevungu and the Lwanginga, which, in turn, flows into the Zambezi (Lyambayi) on the Barotse flood plain.

 

 
By this expedition King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda had won the country which later became simply known as Mbunda, the country of the VaMbunda who now speak various dialects of the Mbunda language.13 These languages are not to be confused with Ngangela. In fact "Ngangela" is one of the ethnographic classification categories invented during colonial times in a series of African countries which do not correspond to one people held together by a common social identity. The slight difference in the dialects are historical.

 

 
When the Mbunda people who were at the Upper Zambezi and along the Zambezi itself between the Lwena and Lungevungu, mainly on the western side, heard of the new land that King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda had occupied, with its mbunda soil, beautiful rivers and streams and abundance of game, they started emigrating to the new country in large numbers.

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda's Iron Works

King Yambayamba Kapanda was a great iron worker (N'ulungu, muka kufula). After he had accomplished his tasks of acquiring the new land for his people, he realized the need for its defense and security. He needed tools for tilling the soil and weapons for defending the country. He set out to survey for iron deposits all over his new country and he established iron smelters, (Malungu a ndangeka or Malutengo: lilunga lya ndangeka (singular) or Lutengo (singular) where iron deposits were found. A great deal of iron was produced from these smelting furnaces which were set all over the country.

 

 

 

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda ka Chioola and his iron workers established iron smelters at these places:
1) Along the Lungevungu: At Ngova, Longa, Lutwayi, Luthziyi and Luvweyi.
2) Along the Lwanginga: At Luvuu, Mwokoyi, Lukalayi, Lukula and at the Tembwashange rapids.
3) Along the Kwandu: At Kumbule, Chikuluyi, Mwolongo, Mwethe, Kululu, Lukilika and Kembo.
4) Along the Kwanavale: At Tembwe and Nyonga.
5) Along the Kwitu: Chinjamba and Chinyondthzi.
6) Along the Kuvanguyi: N'okoyi and Ngemwe.

 

 

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda and his iron workers supervised the iron works which produced iron for tools, weapons and for trade with neighbouring countries: to the south: Kwanyama, Ngali and Mashi; to the east: Luyi, Nyengo and Makoma and to the north, Luvale. In exchange the Mbunda got cattle from the Kwanyama and the Ngali, fish from the Luvale and Luyi and the Makoma. The Mbunda were not fishermen, traditionally they were game hunters and meat was their favourite relish to vilya, the staple porridge (the thick porridge made of cassava (lupa) or bulrush millet (mashangu) or finger-millet (luku); maize (mundele) was rarely grown. However, the Mbunda Yauma, who prefered to live on the plains were, and still are, great fishermen. Among the Mbunda they were also the greatest producers of maize, pumpkins, cucumbers and beans.

 

 

Yambayamba Kapanda, the thirteenth King of the Mbunda people centralized the Mbunda people from a scattered tribal group into a strong and united tribe with an identity of their own. He acquired a large territory where they multiplied and became a dominant nationality respected and recognized by the surrounding tribal groups. One had to think twice before he would dare to wage a war against the Mbunda Kings like Yambayamba.

Before his death, King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda called all the important heads of families and Noblemen (Vimvata) to a Royal Court (Mandthzembi) at his Livambi capital his brother Chief Mwene Chingumbe and his Prime Minister Mwato Nkombwe Lilema were there.

 

King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda addressed the Royal Court (Mandthzembi ) in the following words which have been handed down by word of mouth in the Mbunda royal hierarchy to this day:

 
Vanike vaka thimutwila vya vanu.
Vanalume vakathimutwila vilingo,
Olojo Vimyene na Maako vakakala na matumbe.

Meaning:

Children discuss persons
Men discuss actions,
But Chiefs and noblemen make plans.


He explained the extent of the Mbunda country ranging from Mithimoyi, tributary of the Lwena in the north, to Kuvangu at its confluence with the Kwitu in the South. To the east and north-east as far as the country of the Valuyi to the west as far as Kweve to the north-west Alto Kwitu (now called Tembwe).

 


 

 

He instructed his councillors to take his brother, and eventual successor, Chief Mwene Chingumbe on a tour of the then new Mbunda country. Prime Minister Mwato Likupekupe, of King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda who had accompanied King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda on the first journey of occupation of the Mbunda country was chosen to lead the tour of showing Chief Mwene Chingumbe the new country. Chief Mwene Chingumbe went round the Mbunda country led by Mwato Likupekupe and other Noblemen chosen from Livambi and from Lilembalemba.

 

 
When the Chief's party reached the confluence of Kwanavale and Kwitu, Chief Mwene Chingumbe saw and married a beautiful woman of the royal lineage called Chieftainess Kakuhu ka Musholo from the village of
Lyapwa lya Ndemba. From then on, Chieftainess Kakuhu eventualy became Lishano Kakuhu, the wife of the King, when Chief Mwene Chingumbe was made the King of the Mbunda. Her children with Chief Mwene Chingumbe were destined to make history among the Mbunda people as those who broke away from their father and went to settle amongst the Aluyi (Valuyi) during the reign of King Mulambwa of the Aluyi.

 


Chief Mwene Chingumbe and his party, led by Prime Minister Mwato Likupekupe went round where King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda had been on his first mission of occupying the new land; and then he traveled back to Lilembalemba capital after crossing the Kwandu River and back heading north to Lwanginga and north-west to Lukonya River where his capital was situated. Chief Mwene Chingumbe whom his brother King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda had appointed as his successor settled down to consolidating his position and to reign over the Vambunda with kindness and wisdom.

 

 

 
King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda, who had now reached a very old age, virtually surrendered Mbunda state affairs (Milonga ya Mbunda) to his brother Chief Mwene Chingumbe. King Mwene Yambayamba Kapanda died at a very old age at his capital of Livambi at the confluence of the Luyo and Lungevungu Rivers. The Mbunda people, who loved their King, would not accept his old age as the cause of his death. They accused Nobleman Nungulule of having bewitched their King.

 


King Yambayamba Kapanda had the following children:
1. Prince Mukombe (m)
2. Prince Muyakata (m)
3. Princess Shwaka (f)
4. Prince Chikungwe (m)
5. Prince Nambwa (m)

 

 
None among them could succeed their father as King because succession was through the mother's family lineage. Wisdom behind this is that a mother's child is unquestionably hers. During this expansion, they gave way to branches such as the Sango, the Mbalango, the Yauma, the Nkangala, the Ndundu and the Mashaka
.14 These languages are not to be confused with Ngangela. Infact "Ngangela" is one of the ethnographic classification categories invented during  colonial times in a series of African countries which do not correspond to one people held together by a common social identity. The Mbunda ethnic group and state, stayed intact through the centurie; up to the time of the thirteenth Monarch, King Yambayamba Kapanda when some Mbunda people branched at Kandthzelendthze ndthze, the source of Lungevungu, Kwandu and Kwitu to now Cuando Cubango. Later, during the reign of the sixteenth Monarch, King Ngonga I "Chiteta" (The Beheader) a second a second migration took place. After the assassination of King Katavola I Mwechela, six sub-groups, branched off from the Mbunda ya Mathzi (Katavola). These eventually became known as:

Mbunda-Mbalango

These are of Chief Mwene Muundu of Chief Mwene Mahongo, and Chief Mwene Kandala of Chief Mwene Mbambi. These are the ones that migrated to Mbalango area, at the confluence of Lungevungu and Lwanginga rivers;

 
Mbunda-Yauma

These are of Chief Mwene Mwiinga, a son of Mbiya who in turn, was a son of Kalomo and who was fathered by Mushanya. They assumed the name, for migrating to the higher lands of the valleys of Kwandu river such as "Chunga cha Kembo", "Chunga cha Ndeke" and "Chunga cha Chikeleti";

Mbunda-Nkangala

These are of the Chief Mwene Kavavu, who was born of Chief Mwene Ntongo, the son of Chief Mwene Thingithingi. They assumed the name, for migrating from the valleys into nkangala forests with scattered trees;

Mbunda-Ndundu

These are of Chief Mwene Kambembe, the son of Nkuvwa, and who had Yembe for his father. They assumed the name, for migrating from the valleys to ndundu or boundary of the valley and forests.

Mbunda-Mashaka

These are of Chief Mwene Chikololo, a son of Muthandi, the daughter of Kafwilo. They assumed the name, for migrating from the valleys to mashaka forests or densely think forests.

Mbunda-Sango,

These were the progeny of intermarriages between the Mbunda and the Luvale; on the other side of the Lungevungu and Lutembwe rivers.

Mbunda nicknamed "Shamuka",

These are of Chief Mwene Chitengi Chingumbe Chiyengele. They migrated from Mbundaland during the reign of King Mwene Ngonga Chiteta I, to settle in Barotseland.

Ngangela Or Mbunda Group? 

What Is Ngangela And The Origin Of The Name?  

 

Today some unofficial Angola Tribal maps show Eastern Angola as occupied by Ngangela.

 

Ngangela As A Tribe: These tribal maps are misleading because Ngangela is not a tribe but a derogatory name which also means Eastern.15  It is also reflective of Portuguese colonialists' oppression on Mbunda and clear intent to wipe out the ethnic group completely out of Angola.

 

Ngangela As A Language: Missionery Emil Pearson created Ngangela as a standard language by mixing Mbunda, Luchazi, Luvale and Luimbi languages, to allow a single translation of the Bible for the four communities.16   As a result, Mbunda as a National Language in Angola has been disappearing from a list of six: KIKONGO, KIMBUNDU, UMBUNDU, CHOKWE, MBUNDA AND KWANYAMA according to the Official Gazette No: 3/87 of May 23, 1987 following a resolution adopted by the Council of Ministers.17

 

Status Of Mbunda language In Angola

 

Mbunda language was chosen as one of the six National languages in Angola for development of orthographies and facilitate teaching it in schools in 1980 by the Institute of National languages in Angola.[18][19][20][21][22][23] The Mbunda desk at the Institute of National languages in Luanda, Angola was represented by Camarada Justino Frederico Katwiya, a teacher of Mbunda National language.24 However, after Camarada Justino Frederico Katwiya's retirement, the Mbunda desk at the Institution has remained vacant to-date. The lack of representation by the Mbunda people caused other ethnic groups with representation at higher levels of decision making to substitute Mbunda language with Ngangela language, and systematically,  Mbunda programming as a National language ​​was removed from the Public Television of Angola (TPA), even on National and some community radio stations and replaced with Ngangela.  However, recent pronouncements from the authorities indicate that the anormally is receiving some attention.[25][26]

 

The language area of MBUNDA has changed:27 Initially it was between the right bank of the river Lungue-Bungo on the way to the border with the Republic of Zambia, and along the rivers Luconha, Cuvangui up to Cuando, namely the munipality of Cuando, the commune of Cangombe, along the Cuando River to the border with the current Republic of Zambia.

Currently its area in Angola was restricted due to:
  •  Migrattions in the 18th century to Barotseland areas of Kalabo and Mongu, where they were nicknamed Mbunda/Shamuka, after modifications of their Customs and Traditions.
  • Migrations in 1914, following the abduction of King Mwene Mbandu, to additional Barotseland areas of Senanga, Kaoma and Lukulu where they preserved their traditions and customs.
  • Migrations caused by the wars of National liberation.

 

The current Mbunda language area in Angola is confined in the city of MBundas in Lumbala Nguimbo, comprising the communes of Luvuei, Lutembo,Mussuma, Ninda and Cumi.

 

 

First Mbunda People Voluntary Migration To Barotseland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 In 1795, some Mbunda started migrating to Barotseland.28 These Mbunda did not run away from any wars in Mbundaland. The boundary between Mbundaland to the west and Barotseland to the east then was Zambezi river. In the first immigration, some of the Mbunda with their Chiefs, Mwene Mundu, Mwene Kandala, and Mwene Chiyengele29 respectively, decided to move closer to Zambezi River under a friendship pact with Lozi Litunga, Mulambwa Santulu. Mwene Chitengi Chingumbe Chiyengele, the third Mbunda Chief to immigrate to Zambia came with his royal regalia as the 15th Monarch in frustration, after succeeding his father King Chingumbe cha Chioola, the 14th Mbunda Monarch instead of a nephew as per Mbunda custom. In his absence in Mbundaland, the Mbunda replaced him with King Ngonga I Chiteta as the 16th Monarch and a rightful successor to the thrown as a nephew. Mongu

By the late 1800s the British began expanding their colonial territory northwards from South Africa through Zimbabwe into Zambia. They became aware of the Zambezi River when David Livingstone led his expedition down the river in 1869. These Mbundas became part of the Barotseland Protectorate which was recognized by the British.

The Portuguese also were expanding. They had established ports in Angola along the Atlantic coast during the 1600s. In the late 1800s they were extending their colonies inward toward the Zambezi River. The British recognized and feared this expansion of Portuguese territory. To counter it they established an outpost at the confluence of the Luanginga and Lweti rivers. These two rivers are tributaries of the Zambezi and lie west of the Zambezi. This British outpost was called Kalabo and it was the only British post west of the Zambezi.

Fall of The Mbunda Kingdom and Portuguese Occupation of Mbundaland

In 1914, the Portuguese colonialists abducted the twentieth (21st) Mbunda Monarch, King Mbandu Lyondthi Kapova (Kathima Mishambo) and imposed Prince (Munamwene) Kazungo Shanda as the 22nd Mbunda Monarch. Little did King Mbandu Lyondthi Kapova (Kathima Mishambo) know that his nephew was an ambitious traitor and would not follow the King's instructions. King Mbandu Lyondthi Kapova, his Prime Minister (Mwato wa Mwene) Shwana Mbambale, his two personal physicians and special aides, Mwata Kambalameko and Mwata Vitumbi, some important courtiers as well as a number of his bodyguards were kidnapped and taken away in 1914 by Portuguese colonial troops mounted on horsebacks. This resulted in a war named "The Kolongongo War". This is a war the Portuguese Colonialists fought on horse backs against the Mbunda,30  .

 

 

 

 

The Mbunda waged a fierce armed campaigns in their desperate bid to maintain their independence of Portuguese subjugation. They new how to fight. They were a fearless, strong and brave people. However, as time elapsed, the Portuguese forces gained an upper hand in the war because they were continuously provisioned with gunpowder for their guns. The embattled Mbunda, who did not posses the know-how essential to the making of gunpowder eventually found the muzzle-loaders to be absolutely useless. They had to increasingly rely on their bows and arrows as well as a few other traditional arms which were suited for warfare only at close quarters. Superior Portuguese firepower took a heavy toll of the increasingly dispirited Mbunda, some of whom began to throw their muzzle-loaders in the rivers for lack of gunpowder. The war lasted up to 1929 and dislodged the Mbunda Kingdom and the Portuguese took over Mbundaland to be part of Angola.

Mbunda People Flee To Barotseland and South-West Africa (Namibia) - Second Migration

This caused some Mbundas to migrate to Namibia and a second immigration of Mbundas to Barotseland. However, many Mbundas in Namibia call themselves Ngangelas.

The Mbunda who lived in Barotseland prospered. They were welcomed and respected by the Aluyi. The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga especially prized the Mbunda for their ability to fight. When the Luvale also known as Lovale invaded Barotseland from the north the Litunga instructed the Mbunda to counter the invasion.31  The battle was a complete victory for the Mbundas They killed all of the Luvale warriors except for a few. These few were left alive so they could return to the Luvale villages and report about what happens when you do battle with the Mbunda.

The rejoicing Mbunda warriors then cut off the heads of their victims and carried them on top of sticks. They ran singing all the way to Lilundu, the capital of Barotseland and the home of the Litunga Mulambwa. When the Aluyi saw this crowd of the Mbunda warriors carrying sticks with the heads on top they panicked and ran away. They didn't realize the Mbunda were coming to celebrate with them. They thought they were the next victims.

After this defeat the Luvale never attacked the Aluyi for their cattle. King Mulambwa now knew of the fighting ability of the Mbunda and confirmed Mwene Chitengi Chiyengele's right to stay in Bulozi as the Senior Mbunda Chief. King Mulambwa decided to cement the bond of friendship between the Aluyi and the Mbunda.

The Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty In Barotseland

On a specially appointed occasion, in the presence of King Mulambwa, Aluyana and Mbunda royalty, Aluyana and Mbunda elders and Aluyana and Mbunda public, Mwene Chitengi Chiyengele was ceremonially given a sharp pointed pole called mulombwe while the following ten points were explained orally, forming the famous Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty:

1). We give you this sharp-pointed pole to replace those poles with rounded tops for your royal

     palace. It is only your palace which will be built with sharp poles called milombwe.

2). Your royal drum (Kenda na Vafwa) and royal xylophone (Kamuyongole) should be played in your

     palace, when you visit others and whenever you come to this capital.       

3). It is only you who will use a royal flywistch of the eland.                                 

4). You are free to continue to teach your people your language and culture; you will not be forced

     to take our language and culture.                                                             

5). There shall never be an Aluyi person who enslaves a Mbunda and no Mbunda shall enslave an

     Aluyi.

6). You are not forced to live on the Barotse plain but free to live in the forests.

7). You are free to cultivate cassava, yams and millet in the multitude that you wish.

8). In military and political matters you should be allied with the Aluyi.

9). Never fight among one another, but love one another. Finally.

10). Respect chieftainship and the elders.

In this way the relationship between the Aluyi and the Mbunda was defined and developed and continues to this day. The views of King Mulambwa recognized the Mbunda contribution to the historical development of Bulozi.32 This and other factors earned Mbunda to be represented on the Barotse National Council.33

Secondly, the Mbunda fought alongside Aluyi34 in the Aluyi/Makololo war in 1830, which ousted the Makololo rule on the Aluyi.35 This led to the establishment of the Mbunda Chieftainship at Lukwakwa under Senior Chief Sikufele36 now in Kabompo District, being a descendant of Mulambwa and a Mbunda wife. The Makololo from the south introduced the Lozi language spoken not only in Western Province today but also Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Caprivi Strip.

In the 1880s the Litunga decided he wanted to grab the cattle which belonged to his neighbors to the east, the Tonga.37 He sent all his warriors eastward to chase off the Tonga and return with their cattle. The heart of his army were the Mbunda.38 Again the Mbunda were successful as the Tonga could not compete. The Tonga had no defense against the Mbundas' skill with a bow and arrow. The Tonga fought only briefly before they ran away. The Lozis with the Mbunda in the lead returned to Barotseland to present the Litunga with over one million cattle. This is where the Lozi/Mbunda and Tonga Cousinship originates from.

Later the Kaonde/Lozi war which Lozis lost in the first battle, but warn with the help of the Mbunda war machinery, where Mbunda Chief Kasimba of Kalumwange played a major role resulting in the Mbunda Chieftainship having firmly been established there at the confluence of the Lalafuta and Kyamenge in 1893, opposite Chief Mushima Njivumina of the Kaonde.[39][40]

All this proved the fighting supremacy of the Mbunda in fighting alongside the Aluyi41 and in honoring the Mulambwa/Chiyengele Treaty, Mbundas remained the true allies of the Aluyi both in military and political matters.

Tribal warfare was discouraged during the colonial rule by the British. The Mbunda lived peacefully. They tended their cattle and grew cassava, maize and rice. Many of the men left their homes to work in the mines of South Africa. When independence from British rule came in 1964 this practice was discouraged. The men were then recruited to work on the sugar plantations of Zambia. They were much sought after due to their reputation as reliable workers.

Under Portuguese Colonial Persecution Mbunda People Join MPLA In Liberation War - The Third Mbunda Migration

The Mbunda that remained in Mbundaland which was now part of Angola continued with hardship of the Portuguese colonialists. In 1961 an upraising against forced cotton cultivation, culminated into liberation war. With encouragement from Agostinho Neto, leader of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the Mbunda were determined to avenge the persecution they experienced at the hands of the Portuguese colonialists. Most of the Mbunda joined the ranks of the MPLA42 and gave up their lives for the liberation of Angola and their Mbundaland which was mainly fought in their home territory. The liberation war caused the second wave of the Mbunda fleeing to other Provinces of Angola, Zambia and Namibia.

Mbunda People Fight Alongside MPLA In Angola Civil War In Their Territory - Fourth Mbunda Migration

Independence came to Angola in November 1975 and with independence came civil war Angolan Civil War. Again many Mbundas fled Angola to relocate in nearby western Zambia, this marked the third and fourth wave of Mbunda immigration to the now Western Province of Zambia. These refugees were related to those Mbundas who were already living around Kalabo, Senanga, Mongu, Kaoma, Lukulu and Kabompo in Zambia. They were welcomed there and fit in easily.

The Mbunda have maintained most of their old traditions. They still respect their ancestors. They have "coming of age" rituals for both boys (Mukanda and their not less than fifty (50) Makishi artifacts) Read...  and girls (Litungu or Bwali) Read...  They still rely on cattle and cassava for their food. Men carry weapons such as bow and arrows, spears or machetes when they travel away from their villages. Women still create baskets from the root of the makenge bush and of course these baskets are the finest in the world. See...

Read More.......

References

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     published  by Longman Kenya, 1992 - Social Science - 170 pages, ISBN 9966-49-832-X"

 2  Almanac of African Peoples & Nations page 523, Social Science By Muhammad Zuhdī Yakan, Transaction Publishers,

    Putgers - The State University, New Jersey, ISBN: 1-5600-433-9

 3  Robert Papstein The History and Cultural Life of the Mbunda Speaking People, Lusaka Cheke Cultural Writers

      Association, 1994, ISBN 99 820 3006X

 4  "The Bantu in Ancient Egypt, citing sources: Alfred M M'Imanyara 'The Restatement of Bantu Origin and Meru History'

     published  by Longman Kenya, 1992 - Social Science - 170 pages, ISBN 9966-49-832-X"

 5  Almanac of African Peoples & Nations page 523, Social Science By Muhammad Zuhdī Yakan, Transaction Publishers,  

    Putgers - The State University, New Jersey, ISBN: 1-5600-433-9

 6  Robert Papstein The History and Cultural Life of the Mbunda Speaking People, Lusaka Cheke Cultural Writers

     Association, 1994, ISBN 99 820 3006X

 7   Almanac of African Peoples & Nations page 523, Social Science By Muhammad Zuhdī Yakan, Transaction Publishers,

      Putgers - The State University, New Jersey, ISBN: 1-5600-433-9

 8   Terms of trade and terms of trust: the history and contexts of pre-colonial pages 103, 104 & 105...By Achim von Oppen,

      LIT Verlag M�nster Publishers, 1993, ISBN: 3894732466, 9783894732462

9   Almanac of African Peoples & Nations page 523, Social Science By Muhammad Zuhdī Yakan, Transaction Publishers,

      Putgers - The State University, New Jersey, ISBN: 1-5600-433-9 

10   Bantu-Languages.com

11   Terms of trade and terms of trust: the history and contexts of pre-colonial pages 133...By Achim von Oppen,

      LIT Verlag M�nster Publishers, 1993, ISBN: 3894732466, 9783894732462

12   Almanac of African Peoples & Nations page 523, Social Science By Muhammad Zuhdī Yakan, Transaction Publishers,

      Putgers - The State University, New Jersey, ISBN: 1-5600-433-9

13   Bantu-Languages.com

14   Bantu-Languages.com

15  Alvin W. Urquhart, ''Patterns of Settlement and Subsistence in Southwestern Angola'', National Academies Press, 1963,

      p 10.

16  Robert Papstein, "The Central African Historical Research Project", in Harneit-Sievers, 2002, A Place in the World: New

       Local Historiographies from Africa and South Asia, p. 178

17  Resolution adopted by Council of Ministers - Official Gazette No. 3/87 of May 1987

18  Colin Baker and Sulvia Prys Jones' (1998) Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education-Multilingial Matters

       Ltd. pp. 355-367

19  Minority languages and cultures in Central Africa

20  The Cultural Peculiarity - About Angola 

21  O desafio de harmonizar os alfabetos das linguas locais de Angola

22  Ethnic groups and national languages

23  Linguas Nacionais

24  Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central ... - Page 290-292

25  Angola Harmoniza��o das l�nguas bantu dificultada pela fon�tica e grafia

26   Elabora��o do Atlas Lingu�stico de Angola

27   A �rea lingu�stica do MBUNDA tem-se modificado

28 The elites of Barotseland, 1878-1969: a political history of Zambia's Western Province: a. Gerald L. Caplan ISBN 0-

     900966-38-6 Publisher: C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 1970

29   Bantu-Languages.com

30   Ren� P�lissier, La r�volte des Bunda (1916-1917), pp. 408 - 412 (French for "the Mbunda revolt"), section footnotes

      citing sources: Lu�s Figueira, Princesa Negra: O pre�o da civiliza��o em �frica, Coimbra Edi��o do autor, 1932

31   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

      Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760.

32   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

       Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

33  Mupatu, Y. Mulambwa Santulu Uamuhela Bo Mwene, London, 1954

34  Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

        Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

35   Bull M.M., Bulozi Under The Luyana Kings, London 1973

36   White, C.M.N. "Notes on the Political Organization of the Kabompo District and its Inhabitants," African Studies, IX,

         (1950), pp. 185-93

37   Bull M.M., Bulozi Under The Luyana Kings, London 1973

38   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

        Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

39   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

        Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

40   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

        Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

41   Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and Middle East, Facts On File library of world history, Facts On File,

        Incorporated, Social Science, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN: 143812676X, 9781438126760

42   Gerhard Kubit (2003) Minority languages and cultures in Central Africa Page 3

 

                                                                                                                                           

Further reading

 

Bantu-Languages.com

The Luchazi of Southern Africa... By Orville Jenkins

Tusona- Luchazi Ideographs - a Graphic Tradition of West-Central ... - Page 34 & 47 - Google Books Result

From Ethnic Identity to Tribalism: The Upper Zambezi Region of Zambia, 1830-1981

 

    

 

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